André Breton (Tinchebray19 February 1896 – Paris28 september 1966) was a French writer, poet and essayist. It is especially included in surrealism.


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Breton known for his Manifesto of Surrealism is seen as the theorist and the founder of surrealism (the "Pope of Surrealism"). Prior to that, he was already involved in Dadaism.From 1927 to 1935 he was, as well as other surrealists, Member of the Communist Party of France. Breton was especially a poet and supporter of the poetry, but was nevertheless particularly known for his novel, Nadja (1928).

The Manifesto of Surrealism (French: Manifeste du Surréalisme), which he published in 1924, was the fruit of five years of systematic experiments, mainly in the field of ' automatic writing ' (which should come directly from the subconscious), but also on that of the hypnotic sleep. The decisive share that he since then in the movement had, loved as much related to its efforts to maintain the internal consistency of Surrealism as directly in touch with the desire to stay with the happening.

As early as 1925 he advocated the raison d ' être of a surrealist painting. In 1938 he welcomed entering in this painting of the ' absolute automatism '. In 1941 he laid the emphasis on the individual character of that automatism within the design activities of surrealism.

Breton accepted the famous credo of Jacques Lacan because he accepted the madness as the only border to limit freedom:

"Et ne peut être non seulement de l'homme ' être, mais il ne serait pas compris sans foil ' être de l'homme, s'il ne portait and lazy la folie comme limite de sa liberté".
("Not only can the essence of man not be understood without the madness, but that being is equally characterized by the madness as limit his freedom") [1.

Hence the L'amour fou for the surrealists wanted, unlimited and irrational love was. It was one of the hobbyhorses of Surrealism[2.

Breton was for the definition of his understanding of freedom also influenced by the work of the philosopher of the romance Friedrich von Schelling[3.

André Breton died at seventy years of age.


  • "I am searching for the gold of the time"(also epitaph)
  • "I agree, open the door!"
  • "Human freedom, color"
  • "What I have, what I don't have..., I give you"
  • "Avida Dollars"(anagram on Salvador Dali)
  • "Who doesn't at least once in his life have been noticing the lust, runs itself with the rumen on shot height"(about the acte gratuit )


  • Mont de piété (Leihhaus), poems (1919)
  • Les Champs magnétiques (That magnetischen Felder) with Philippe Soupault (1920)
  • Clair de Terre (Erdschein), poems (1923)
  • Manifest du Surréalisme (1924)
  • Poisson Soluble (1924)
  • Nadja (1928; 1962 edited)
  • Le Surréalisme et la peinture (1928)
  • Slow Their Investment Travaux (Achtung Baustelle) with René Char and Paul Éluard (1929)
  • Second Manifeste du Surréalisme (1930)
  • York Conception with Paul Éluard, illustrated by Salvador Dalí (1930)
  • Les Vases communicants (1932)
  • Le revolver a cheveux blancs, poems (1932)
  • Le Message automatique, essay (1933)
  • L'air de l'eau, poems (1934)
  • L'Amour fou (1937)
  • Pour un art révolutionnaire indépendant, with Leon Trotsky (1938)
  • Anthologie de l'humour noir (1940)
  • Prolégomènes à un troisième manifest ou non (1942)
  • Arcane 17 (1944)
  • Ode à Charles Fourier (1945)
  • Entretiens (1952)
  • La Clé des champs (1953)
  • Constellations, poems in prose (1959)