FANDOM


(Promotional video)
(One intermediate revision by one user not shown)
Line 41: Line 41:
 
Recording began at [[Rockfield Studios|Rockfield Studio 1]] near [[Monmouth]] on 24 August 1975, after a three-week rehearsal at [[Penrhos, Herefordshire|Penrhos Court]], near [[Kington, Herefordshire]]. During the making of the track, an additional four studios (Roundhouse, SARM (East), Scorpion, and Wessex) were used.{{Sfn|Cunningham|1995}} According to some band members, Mercury mentally prepared the song beforehand and directed the band throughout.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} Mercury used a [[C. Bechstein Pianofortefabrik|Bechstein]] "concert grand" piano, which he played in the promotional video and the UK tour. Due to the elaborate nature of the song, it was recorded in various sections, held together by a [[Click track|drum click]] to keep all layers synchronised.{{Sfn|Hodkinson|2004|p=192}}
 
Recording began at [[Rockfield Studios|Rockfield Studio 1]] near [[Monmouth]] on 24 August 1975, after a three-week rehearsal at [[Penrhos, Herefordshire|Penrhos Court]], near [[Kington, Herefordshire]]. During the making of the track, an additional four studios (Roundhouse, SARM (East), Scorpion, and Wessex) were used.{{Sfn|Cunningham|1995}} According to some band members, Mercury mentally prepared the song beforehand and directed the band throughout.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} Mercury used a [[C. Bechstein Pianofortefabrik|Bechstein]] "concert grand" piano, which he played in the promotional video and the UK tour. Due to the elaborate nature of the song, it was recorded in various sections, held together by a [[Click track|drum click]] to keep all layers synchronised.{{Sfn|Hodkinson|2004|p=192}}
   
May, Mercury and Taylor reportedly sang their vocal parts continually for ten to twelve hours a day.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The entire piece took three weeks to record, and in some sections featured 180 separate [[Overdubbing|overdubs]].{{Sfn|Hodkinson|2004|p=192}} Since the studios of the time only offered 24-track analogue tape, it was necessary for the three to overdub themselves many times and "bounce" these down to successive [[Stem mixing and mastering|sub-mixes]]. In the end, eighth-generation tapes were used.{{Sfn|Cunningham|1995}} The various sections of tape containing the desired submixes had to be [[Reel-to-reel audio tape recording|spliced]] (cut and assembled in the correct sequence). May recalled placing a tape in front of the light and being able to see through it, as they had been recording so intensely.{{Sfn|Classic Albums | 2006}}
+
Mercury, May and Taylor reportedly sang their vocal parts continually for ten to twelve hours a day.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The entire piece took three weeks to record, and in some sections featured 180 separate [[Overdubbing|overdubs]].{{Sfn|Hodkinson|2004|p=192}} Since the studios of the time offered 24-track analogue tape, it was necessary for the three to overdub themselves many times and "bounce" these down to successive [[Stem mixing and mastering|sub-mixes]]. In the end, eighth-generation tapes were used.{{Sfn|Cunningham|1995}} The various sections of tape containing the desired submixes had to be [[Reel-to-reel audio tape recording|spliced]] (cut and assembled in the correct sequence). May recalled placing a tape in front of the light and being able to see through it, as they had been recording so intensely.{{Sfn|Classic Albums | 2006}}
   
 
Producer Baker recalls that May's solo was done on only one track, rather than recording multiple tracks. May stated that he wanted to compose "a little tune that would be a counterpart to the main melody; I didn't just want to play the melody". The guitarist said that his better material stems from this way of working: in which he thought of the tune before playing it: "the fingers tend to be predictable unless being led by the brain."{{Sfn | BBC| 2004b}}
 
Producer Baker recalls that May's solo was done on only one track, rather than recording multiple tracks. May stated that he wanted to compose "a little tune that would be a counterpart to the main melody; I didn't just want to play the melody". The guitarist said that his better material stems from this way of working: in which he thought of the tune before playing it: "the fingers tend to be predictable unless being led by the brain."{{Sfn | BBC| 2004b}}
Line 52: Line 52:
 
The song begins with a close five-part harmony [[a cappella]] introduction in [[B-flat major|B{{Music|flat}}]]—entirely [[multitrack recording|multi track recordings]] of Mercury although the video has all four members [[Lip sync|lip-syncing]] this part. The lyrics question whether life is "real" or "just fantasy caught in a [[landslide]]" before concluding that there can be "no escape from reality".
 
The song begins with a close five-part harmony [[a cappella]] introduction in [[B-flat major|B{{Music|flat}}]]—entirely [[multitrack recording|multi track recordings]] of Mercury although the video has all four members [[Lip sync|lip-syncing]] this part. The lyrics question whether life is "real" or "just fantasy caught in a [[landslide]]" before concluding that there can be "no escape from reality".
   
After 14 seconds, the grand piano enters, and Mercury's voice alternates with the other vocal parts. The narrator introduces himself as "just a poor boy" but declares that he "needs no sympathy" because he is "easy come, easy go" and then "little high, little low" (if listening in [[stereophonic sound|stereo]], the words "little high" come from the left speaker whereas the "little low" comes from the right); [[Diatonic and chromatic|chromatic]] [[Outside (jazz)|side-slipping]] on "easy come, easy go" highlights the dream-like atmosphere. The end of this section is marked by the bass entrance and the cross-handed piano [[vamp (music)|vamp]] in B{{Music|flat}}.
+
After 14 seconds, the grand piano enters, and Mercury's voice alternates with the other vocal parts. The narrator introduces himself as "just a poor boy" but declares that he "needs no sympathy" because he is "easy come, easy go" and then "little high, little low" (the words "little high" come from the left speaker and the "little low" comes from the right); [[Diatonic and chromatic|chromatic]] [[Outside (jazz)|side-slipping]] on "easy come, easy go" highlights the dream-like atmosphere. The end of this section is marked by the bass entrance and the cross-handed piano [[vamp (music)|vamp]] in B{{Music|flat}}.
   
 
===Ballad (0:49–3:02)===
 
===Ballad (0:49–3:02)===
Line 82: Line 82:
   
 
===Hard rock (4:07–4:54)===
 
===Hard rock (4:07–4:54)===
The operatic section leads into an aggressive [[hard rock]]/[[Heavy metal music|heavy metal]] musical interlude with a [[riff|guitar riff]] written by Mercury. At 4:15, a [[double tracking|quadruple-tracked]] Mercury (in stereo, the four parts are panned two on the left and two on the right) sings angry lyrics addressed to an unspecified "you", accusing them of betrayal and abuse and insisting "can't do this to me, baby" – which could be interpreted as a [[Flashback (narrative)|flashback]] to certain events that led to the earlier ballad section ("just killed a man"). Three ascending guitar runs follow. Mercury then plays a similar B{{Music|flat}} run on the piano, as the song builds up to the finale with a [[Andantino (music)|''ritardando'']].
+
The operatic section leads into an aggressive [[hard rock]]/[[Heavy metal music|heavy metal]] musical interlude with a [[riff|guitar riff]] written by Mercury. At 4:15, a [[double tracking|quadruple-tracked]] Mercury (the four parts are panned two on the left and two on the right) sings angry lyrics addressed to an unspecified "you", accusing them of betrayal and abuse and insisting "can't do this to me, baby" – which could be interpreted as a [[Flashback (narrative)|flashback]] to certain events that led to the earlier ballad section ("just killed a man"). Three ascending guitar runs follow. Mercury then plays a similar B{{Music|flat}} run on the piano, as the song builds up to the finale with a [[Andantino (music)|''ritardando'']].
   
 
===Outro (4:54–5:55)===
 
===Outro (4:54–5:55)===
Line 107: Line 107:
   
 
==Promotional video==
 
==Promotional video==
Though some artists had made [[music video|video clips]] to accompany songs (including Queen themselves; for example, "[[Keep Yourself Alive]]", "[[Seven Seas of Rhye]]", "[[Killer Queen]]" and "[[Liar (Queen song)|Liar]]" already had "pop promos", as they were known at the time), it was only after the success of "Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular practice for [[record industry|record companies]] to produce promotional videos for artists' single releases.<ref>{{cite journal |first=Jari |last=Muikku |title=On the role and tasks of a record producer |journal=Popular Music and Society |volume=14 |issue=1 |pages=25–33 |date=1990 |doi=10.1080/03007769008591381}}</ref> These videos could then be shown on television shows, such as the [[BBC]]'s ''[[Top of the Pops]]'', without the need for the artist to appear in person. A promo video also allowed the artist to have their music broadcast and accompanied by their own choice of visuals, rather than dancers such as [[Pan's People]]. According to May, the video was produced so that the band could avoid miming on ''Top of the Pops'', since they would have looked off miming to such a complex song.{{Sfn|Black|2002}} He also said that the band knew they would be set to appear at [[Dundee]]'s [[Caird Hall]] on tour and unable to appear on the programme anyway.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The video has been hailed as launching the MTV age.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}}
+
Though some artists had made [[music video|video clips]] to accompany songs (including Queen themselves; for example, "[[Keep Yourself Alive]]", "[[Seven Seas of Rhye]]", "[[Killer Queen]]" and "[[Liar (Queen song)|Liar]]" already had "pop promos", as they were known at the time), it was only after the success of "Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular practice for record labels to produce promotional videos for artists' single releases.<ref>{{cite journal |first=Jari |last=Muikku |title=On the role and tasks of a record producer |journal=Popular Music and Society |volume=14 |issue=1 |pages=25–33 |date=1990 |doi=10.1080/03007769008591381}}</ref> These videos could then be shown on television shows, such as the [[BBC]]'s ''[[Top of the Pops]]'', without the need for the artist to appear in person. A promo video also allowed the artist to have their music broadcast and accompanied by their own choice of visuals, rather than dancers such as [[Pan's People]]. According to May, the video was produced so that the band could avoid miming on ''Top of the Pops'', since they would have looked off miming to such a complex song.{{Sfn|Black|2002}} He also said that the band knew they would be set to appear at [[Dundee]]'s [[Caird Hall]] on tour and unable to appear on the programme anyway.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The video has been hailed as launching the MTV age.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}}
   
 
The band used Trilion, a subsidiary of [[Trident Studios]], their former management Company and recording studio. They hired one of their trucks and got it to [[Elstree Studios]], where the band were rehearsing for their tour. The video was directed by [[Bruce Gowers]], who had directed a video of the band's 1974 performance at the [[Rainbow Theatre]] in London, and was recorded by cameraman Barry Dodd and [[assistant director]]/[[floor manager]] Jim McCutcheon. The video was recorded in just four hours on 10 November 1975, at a cost of £4,500.{{Sfn|Hodkinson|2004|p=192}} The director said that the band was involved in the discussion of the video and the end result, and "was a co-operative to that extent, but there was only one leader."{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}}
 
The band used Trilion, a subsidiary of [[Trident Studios]], their former management Company and recording studio. They hired one of their trucks and got it to [[Elstree Studios]], where the band were rehearsing for their tour. The video was directed by [[Bruce Gowers]], who had directed a video of the band's 1974 performance at the [[Rainbow Theatre]] in London, and was recorded by cameraman Barry Dodd and [[assistant director]]/[[floor manager]] Jim McCutcheon. The video was recorded in just four hours on 10 November 1975, at a cost of £4,500.{{Sfn|Hodkinson|2004|p=192}} The director said that the band was involved in the discussion of the video and the end result, and "was a co-operative to that extent, but there was only one leader."{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}}
Line 113: Line 113:
 
The video opens with a shot of the four band members in near darkness as they sing the ''a cappella'' part. The lights fade up, and the shots cross-fade into close-ups of Freddie. The composition of the shot is the same as [[Mick Rock]]'s cover photograph for their second album ''[[Queen II]]''. The photo, inspired by a photograph of actress [[Marlene Dietrich]], was the band's favourite image of themselves.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The video then fades into them playing their instruments. In the opera section of the video, the scene reverts to the ''Queen II'' standing positions, after which they perform once again on stage during the hard rock segment. In the closing seconds of the video Roger Taylor is depicted stripped to the waist, striking the [[Gong|tam tam]] in the manner of the trademark of the [[Rank Organisation]]'s [[Gongman]], familiar in the UK as the opening of all Rank film productions.
 
The video opens with a shot of the four band members in near darkness as they sing the ''a cappella'' part. The lights fade up, and the shots cross-fade into close-ups of Freddie. The composition of the shot is the same as [[Mick Rock]]'s cover photograph for their second album ''[[Queen II]]''. The photo, inspired by a photograph of actress [[Marlene Dietrich]], was the band's favourite image of themselves.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The video then fades into them playing their instruments. In the opera section of the video, the scene reverts to the ''Queen II'' standing positions, after which they perform once again on stage during the hard rock segment. In the closing seconds of the video Roger Taylor is depicted stripped to the waist, striking the [[Gong|tam tam]] in the manner of the trademark of the [[Rank Organisation]]'s [[Gongman]], familiar in the UK as the opening of all Rank film productions.
   
All of the special effects were achieved during the recording, rather than editing. The visual effect of Mercury's face cascading away (during the echoed line "go") was accomplished by pointing the camera at a monitor, giving [[optical feedback|visual feedback]], a glare analogous to [[audio feedback]]. The honeycomb illusion was created using a shaped lens. The video was edited within five hours because it was due to be broadcast the same week in which it was taped. The video was sent to the BBC as soon as it was completed and aired for the first time on ''Top of the Pops'' in November 1975.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} After a few weeks at number one, an edit of the video was created. The most obvious difference is the flames superimposed over the introduction as well as several alternate camera angles.
+
All of the special effects were achieved during the recording, rather than editing. The visual effect of Mercury's face cascading away (during the echoed line "go") was accomplished by pointing the camera at a monitor, giving [[optical feedback|visual feedback]], a glare analogous to [[audio feedback]]. The honeycomb illusion was created using a shaped lens. The video was edited within five hours because it was due to be broadcast the same week in which it was filmed. The video was sent to the BBC as soon as it was completed and aired for the first time on ''Top of the Pops'' in November 1975.{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} After a few weeks at number one, an edit of the video was created. The most obvious difference is the flames superimposed over the introduction as well as several alternate camera angles.
   
 
==Critical reaction, acclaim and legacy==
 
==Critical reaction, acclaim and legacy==
 
[[File:Bohemian Rhapsody.jpg|thumb|180px|The [[Queen Extravaganza Tour|Queen Extravaganza]] performing the song at the [[Fox Theatre (Detroit, Michigan)|Fox Theatre]], Detroit in 2012]]
 
[[File:Bohemian Rhapsody.jpg|thumb|180px|The [[Queen Extravaganza Tour|Queen Extravaganza]] performing the song at the [[Fox Theatre (Detroit, Michigan)|Fox Theatre]], Detroit in 2012]]
Although the song has become one of the most revered in popular music history,<ref name="Lambe">{{cite book|last1=Lambe|first1=Stephen|title=Citizens of Hope and Glory: The Story of Progressive Rock|date=2013|publisher=Amberley Publishing|location=The Hill, Stroud|isbn=9781445607375|page=58|edition=Second|url=https://books.google.com/?id=hwnXAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT58&pg=PT58#v=onepage&q&f=false|accessdate=19 November 2014}}</ref> some initial critical reaction was poor. ''[[Melody Maker]]'' said that Queen "contrived to approximate the demented fury of the [[Balham]] Amateur Operatic Society performing ''[[The Pirates of Penzance]]''".{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The newspaper's critic [[Allan Jones (editor)|Allan Jones]] heard only a "superficially impressive pastiche" of operatic styles.{{Sfn|Black|2002}} However, there has been a positive reception from other musicians, including from [[Brian Wilson]] of [[the Beach Boys]], who called it in 1976 "the most competitive thing that's come along in ages" and "a fulfillment and an answer to a teenage prayer—of artistic music".<ref>{{cite journal|last=Cromelin|first=Richard|title=Pet Sounds & The California Consciousness|journal=Sounds|date=7 August 1976|url=http://www.rocksbackpages.com/Library/Article/brian-wilson-part-2}}</ref> [[Greg Lake]], whose song "[[I Believe in Father Christmas]]" was kept from number one in the UK by "Bohemian Rhapsody" when it was released in 1975, acknowledged that he was "beaten by one of the greatest records ever made", describing it as "a once-in-a-lifetime recording".<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.uncut.co.uk/features/the-making-of-greg-lake-s-i-believe-in-father-christmas-833 | title= The Making Of... Greg Lake’s I Believe In Father Christmas | work=[[Uncut (magazine)|Uncut]] | first=Garry | last=Mulholland | date=19 December 2014 | accessdate=17 August 2015}}</ref>
+
Although the song is one of the most revered in popular music history,<ref name="Lambe">{{cite book|last1=Lambe|first1=Stephen|title=Citizens of Hope and Glory: The Story of Progressive Rock|date=2013|publisher=Amberley Publishing|location=The Hill, Stroud|isbn=9781445607375|page=58|edition=Second|url=https://books.google.com/?id=hwnXAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT58&pg=PT58#v=onepage&q&f=false|accessdate=19 November 2014}}</ref> some initial critical reaction was poor. ''[[Melody Maker]]'' said that Queen "contrived to approximate the demented fury of the [[Balham]] Amateur Operatic Society performing ''[[The Pirates of Penzance]]''".{{Sfn|BBC|2004b}} The newspaper's critic [[Allan Jones (editor)|Allan Jones]] heard only a "superficially impressive pastiche" of operatic styles.{{Sfn|Black|2002}} However, there has been a positive reception from other musicians, including from [[Brian Wilson]] of [[the Beach Boys]], who called it in 1976 "the most competitive thing that's come along in ages" and "a fulfillment and an answer to a teenage prayer—of artistic music".<ref>{{cite journal|last=Cromelin|first=Richard|title=Pet Sounds & The California Consciousness|journal=Sounds|date=7 August 1976|url=http://www.rocksbackpages.com/Library/Article/brian-wilson-part-2}}</ref> [[Greg Lake]], whose song "[[I Believe in Father Christmas]]" was kept from number one in the UK by "Bohemian Rhapsody" when it was released in 1975, acknowledged that he was "beaten by one of the greatest records ever made", describing it as "a once-in-a-lifetime recording".<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.uncut.co.uk/features/the-making-of-greg-lake-s-i-believe-in-father-christmas-833 | title= The Making Of... Greg Lake’s I Believe In Father Christmas | work=[[Uncut (magazine)|Uncut]] | first=Garry | last=Mulholland | date=19 December 2014 | accessdate=17 August 2015}}</ref>
   
 
Addressing the song's enduring popularity, author and music lecturer Dr. Jochen Eisentraut wrote in 2012: "A year before [[punk rock|punk]] made it unfashionable, [[progressive rock]] had an astounding success with the theoretically over-length (nearly 6-minute) single 'Bohemian Rhapsody' which bore many of the hallmarks of the 'prog' genre". He said it was "unique at this point to hear a hit single in this style", it was "more accessible than other music of the genre" and was "able to communicate beyond the usual confines of the style".<ref name="Eisentraut"/> Author and progressive rock historian Stephen Lambe called it a "remarkable" single and said it "provides a neat but coincidental bridge between prog in its prime and the move to more aggressive songwriting", suggesting the song "feels like a grotesque (although probably unintentional) parody of progressive rock".<ref name="Lambe"/> ''[[The Rolling Stone Album Guide|The New Rolling Stone Album Guide]]'' described it as "either a prog-rock benchmark or the most convoluted [[novelty song]] ever recorded".<ref>{{cite book |editor1=Nathan Brackett |editor2=Christian Hoard |title=The New Rolling Stone Album Guide|year=2004|page=668|publisher=Simon & Schuster Ltd|isbn=978-0743201698}}</ref> Writing for the [[BBC]], the ''[[Chicago Tribune]]'''s music critic [[Greg Kot]] called it a "prog-rock pocket [[operetta]]" and said the song's "reign as a work of wigged-out genius rather than a dated gimmick testifies to its go-for-broke attitude&nbsp;– one that has resonated across generations".<ref name="Kot"/>
 
Addressing the song's enduring popularity, author and music lecturer Dr. Jochen Eisentraut wrote in 2012: "A year before [[punk rock|punk]] made it unfashionable, [[progressive rock]] had an astounding success with the theoretically over-length (nearly 6-minute) single 'Bohemian Rhapsody' which bore many of the hallmarks of the 'prog' genre". He said it was "unique at this point to hear a hit single in this style", it was "more accessible than other music of the genre" and was "able to communicate beyond the usual confines of the style".<ref name="Eisentraut"/> Author and progressive rock historian Stephen Lambe called it a "remarkable" single and said it "provides a neat but coincidental bridge between prog in its prime and the move to more aggressive songwriting", suggesting the song "feels like a grotesque (although probably unintentional) parody of progressive rock".<ref name="Lambe"/> ''[[The Rolling Stone Album Guide|The New Rolling Stone Album Guide]]'' described it as "either a prog-rock benchmark or the most convoluted [[novelty song]] ever recorded".<ref>{{cite book |editor1=Nathan Brackett |editor2=Christian Hoard |title=The New Rolling Stone Album Guide|year=2004|page=668|publisher=Simon & Schuster Ltd|isbn=978-0743201698}}</ref> Writing for the [[BBC]], the ''[[Chicago Tribune]]'''s music critic [[Greg Kot]] called it a "prog-rock pocket [[operetta]]" and said the song's "reign as a work of wigged-out genius rather than a dated gimmick testifies to its go-for-broke attitude&nbsp;– one that has resonated across generations".<ref name="Kot"/>
Line 133: Line 133:
 
The song also came in tenth in a [[BBC World Service]] poll to find the world's favourite song.{{Sfn|BBC|2002}} In 2000 it came second to "[[Imagine (John Lennon song)|Imagine]]" by [[John Lennon]] in a [[Channel 4]] television poll of ''The 100 Best Number 1s''. It has been in the top 5 of the Dutch annual "Top 100 Aller Tijden" ("All-Time Top 100 [Singles]") since 1977, reaching number one on eight occasions, more than any other artist.{{Sfn|Radio Veronica}} In 1999, the annual "[[Top 2000]]" poll commenced to find the best songs ever made, and "Bohemian Rhapsody" has been ranked number one in all but three years (2005, 2010 and 2014 when it was number two).<ref>[http://www.radio2.nl/top2000 Top 2000 Lijst] radio2.nl. Retrieved 18 January 2015</ref> In a 2012 readers poll conducted by ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' magazine, "Bohemian Rhapsody" was voted the best vocal performance in rock history.<ref>{{cite web|title = 1. Queen, 'Bohemian Rhapsody' – Readers' Poll: The Best Vocal Performances in Rock History|url = http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/readers-poll-the-best-vocal-performances-in-rock-history-20120905/1-queen-bohemian-rhapsody-0846043|website = Rolling Stone|access-date = 9 February 2016}}</ref>
 
The song also came in tenth in a [[BBC World Service]] poll to find the world's favourite song.{{Sfn|BBC|2002}} In 2000 it came second to "[[Imagine (John Lennon song)|Imagine]]" by [[John Lennon]] in a [[Channel 4]] television poll of ''The 100 Best Number 1s''. It has been in the top 5 of the Dutch annual "Top 100 Aller Tijden" ("All-Time Top 100 [Singles]") since 1977, reaching number one on eight occasions, more than any other artist.{{Sfn|Radio Veronica}} In 1999, the annual "[[Top 2000]]" poll commenced to find the best songs ever made, and "Bohemian Rhapsody" has been ranked number one in all but three years (2005, 2010 and 2014 when it was number two).<ref>[http://www.radio2.nl/top2000 Top 2000 Lijst] radio2.nl. Retrieved 18 January 2015</ref> In a 2012 readers poll conducted by ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' magazine, "Bohemian Rhapsody" was voted the best vocal performance in rock history.<ref>{{cite web|title = 1. Queen, 'Bohemian Rhapsody' – Readers' Poll: The Best Vocal Performances in Rock History|url = http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/readers-poll-the-best-vocal-performances-in-rock-history-20120905/1-queen-bohemian-rhapsody-0846043|website = Rolling Stone|access-date = 9 February 2016}}</ref>
   
In 2004 the song was inducted into the [[Grammy Hall of Fame]].{{Sfn|The Recording Academy|2004}} As of 2004, "Bohemian Rhapsody" is the second most played song on British radio, in clubs and on jukeboxes collectively, after [[Procol Harum]]'s "[[A Whiter Shade of Pale]]".{{Sfn|ClashMusic.com|2009}} On 30 September 2007 on the ''Radio 1 Chart Show'', for [[BBC Radio 1]]'s 40th birthday, it was revealed that "Bohemian Rhapsody" was the most played song since Radio 1's launch. In 2004, [[BBC Three]] featured the song as part of their ''The Story of...'' series of documentaries dedicated to specific songs. First broadcast in December 2004, the programme charted the history of the song, discussed its credentials, and took Roger Taylor and Brian May of Queen back to one of the studios in which it was recorded. In 2012, the song topped an [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] poll in the UK to find "The Nation's Favourite Number One" over 60 years of music, ahead of [[Michael Jackson]]'s "[[Billie Jean]]" (No. 2), [[Adele]]'s "[[Someone like You (Adele song)|Someone like You]]" (No. 3), [[Oasis (band)|Oasis]]' "[[Don't Look Back in Anger]]" (No. 4) and [[The Beatles]]' "[[Hey Jude]]" (No. 5).<ref name="ITV poll">[http://www.officialcharts.com/chart-news/queens-bohemian-rhapsody-voted-the-nations-favourite-number-1-single-1491/ "Queen’s Bohemian Rhapsody voted the Nation’s Favourite Number 1 Single"]. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 17 January 2012</ref> The song was also ranked #5 in RadioMafia's list of "Top 500 Songs".<ref>[http://www.yle.fi/radiomafia/sailio/sivu.8.shtml Radiomafian Top 500 (v. 1995)] (in Finnish). yle.fi. Accessed on 26 July 2013.</ref> The song was also included in the [[music video game]]s ''[[Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock]]'' and ''[[Rock Band 3]]''. The song was featured in the second trailer for the 2016 film ''[[Suicide Squad (film)|Suicide Squad]]'', and appears on the [[Suicide Squad (soundtrack)|soundtrack album]] for the film, covered by American band [[Panic! at the Disco]].<ref name="Suicide Soundtrack">{{cite web|url=http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/7408822/suicide-squad-soundtrack-eminem-skrillex-lil-wayne-twenty-one-pilots |title='Suicide Squad' Soundtrack: Skrillex & Rick Ross, Panic! at the Disco Cover 'Bohemian Rhapsody' & More |work=[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]] |first=Gil |last=Kaufman |date=17 June 2016 |accessdate=22 June 2016}}</ref>
+
In 2004, the song was inducted into the [[Grammy Hall of Fame]].{{Sfn|The Recording Academy|2004}} As of 2004, "Bohemian Rhapsody" is the second most played song on British radio, in clubs and on jukeboxes collectively, after [[Procol Harum]]'s "[[A Whiter Shade of Pale]]".{{Sfn|ClashMusic.com|2009}} On 30 September 2007 on the ''Radio 1 Chart Show'', for [[BBC Radio 1]]'s 40th birthday, it was revealed that "Bohemian Rhapsody" was the most played song since Radio 1's launch. In 2004, [[BBC Three]] featured the song as part of their ''The Story of...'' series of documentaries dedicated to specific songs. First broadcast in December 2004, the programme charted the history of the song, discussed its credentials, and took Roger Taylor and Brian May of Queen back to one of the studios in which it was recorded. In 2012, the song topped an [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] poll in the UK to find "The Nation's Favourite Number One" over 60 years of music, ahead of [[Michael Jackson]]'s "[[Billie Jean]]" (No. 2), [[Adele]]'s "[[Someone like You (Adele song)|Someone like You]]" (No. 3), [[Oasis (band)|Oasis]]' "[[Don't Look Back in Anger]]" (No. 4) and [[The Beatles]]' "[[Hey Jude]]" (No. 5).<ref name="ITV poll">[http://www.officialcharts.com/chart-news/queens-bohemian-rhapsody-voted-the-nations-favourite-number-1-single-1491/ "Queen’s Bohemian Rhapsody voted the Nation’s Favourite Number 1 Single"]. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 17 January 2012</ref> The song was also ranked #5 in RadioMafia's list of "Top 500 Songs".<ref>[http://www.yle.fi/radiomafia/sailio/sivu.8.shtml Radiomafian Top 500 (v. 1995)] (in Finnish). yle.fi. Accessed on 26 July 2013.</ref> The song was also included in the [[music video game]]s ''[[Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock]]'' and ''[[Rock Band 3]]''. The song was featured in the second trailer for the 2016 film ''[[Suicide Squad (film)|Suicide Squad]]'', and appears on the [[Suicide Squad (soundtrack)|soundtrack album]] for the film, covered by American band [[Panic! at the Disco]].<ref name="Suicide Soundtrack">{{cite web|url=http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/7408822/suicide-squad-soundtrack-eminem-skrillex-lil-wayne-twenty-one-pilots |title='Suicide Squad' Soundtrack: Skrillex & Rick Ross, Panic! at the Disco Cover 'Bohemian Rhapsody' & More |work=[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]] |first=Gil |last=Kaufman |date=17 June 2016 |accessdate=22 June 2016}}</ref>
   
 
===''Wayne's World''===
 
===''Wayne's World''===
Line 299: Line 299:
 
{{small|{{sup|{{Dagger}}}} Since May 2013 RIAA certifications for digital singles include on-demand audio and/or video song streams in addition to downloads.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?content_selector=riaa-news-gold-and-platinum&news_month_filter=5&news_year_filter=2013&id=C19496E7-CEC0-C453-D8A1-BD80E56E610F |title=RIAA Adds Digital Streams To Historic Gold & Platinum Awards |publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of America]] |date=9 May 2013 |accessdate=9 May 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130604153636/http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?content_selector=riaa-news-gold-and-platinum&news_month_filter=5&news_year_filter=2013&id=C19496E7-CEC0-C453-D8A1-BD80E56E610F |archivedate=4 June 2013 }}</ref>}}
 
{{small|{{sup|{{Dagger}}}} Since May 2013 RIAA certifications for digital singles include on-demand audio and/or video song streams in addition to downloads.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?content_selector=riaa-news-gold-and-platinum&news_month_filter=5&news_year_filter=2013&id=C19496E7-CEC0-C453-D8A1-BD80E56E610F |title=RIAA Adds Digital Streams To Historic Gold & Platinum Awards |publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of America]] |date=9 May 2013 |accessdate=9 May 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130604153636/http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?content_selector=riaa-news-gold-and-platinum&news_month_filter=5&news_year_filter=2013&id=C19496E7-CEC0-C453-D8A1-BD80E56E610F |archivedate=4 June 2013 }}</ref>}}
   
==Queen comments on the record==
+
==Queen comments on the song==
 
{{cquote|I'm going to shatter some illusions, it was just one of those pieces I wrote for the album: just writing my batch of songs. In its early stages I almost rejected it, but then it grew. We started deciding on a single about halfway through. There were a few contenders&nbsp;– we were thinking of "[[The Prophet's Song]]" at one point&nbsp;– but then "Bohemian Rhapsody" seemed the one. There was a time when the others wanted to chop it around a bit, but I refused. If it was going to be released, it would be in its entirety. We knew it was very risky, but we had so much confidence in that song&nbsp;– I did anyway. I felt, underneath it all, that if it was successful it would earn a lot of respect. People were all going, You're joking, they'll never play it, you'll only hear the first few bars and then they'll fade it out. We had numerous rows. EMI were shocked&nbsp;– a six-minute single? You must be joking! The same in America&nbsp;– oh, you just got away with it in Britain.<ref>Freddie Mercury Interview, January 1976, ''Sounds''</ref>|25px|25px|Freddie Mercury, 1976}}
 
{{cquote|I'm going to shatter some illusions, it was just one of those pieces I wrote for the album: just writing my batch of songs. In its early stages I almost rejected it, but then it grew. We started deciding on a single about halfway through. There were a few contenders&nbsp;– we were thinking of "[[The Prophet's Song]]" at one point&nbsp;– but then "Bohemian Rhapsody" seemed the one. There was a time when the others wanted to chop it around a bit, but I refused. If it was going to be released, it would be in its entirety. We knew it was very risky, but we had so much confidence in that song&nbsp;– I did anyway. I felt, underneath it all, that if it was successful it would earn a lot of respect. People were all going, You're joking, they'll never play it, you'll only hear the first few bars and then they'll fade it out. We had numerous rows. EMI were shocked&nbsp;– a six-minute single? You must be joking! The same in America&nbsp;– oh, you just got away with it in Britain.<ref>Freddie Mercury Interview, January 1976, ''Sounds''</ref>|25px|25px|Freddie Mercury, 1976}}
   
Line 309: Line 309:
 
*[[Freddie Mercury]]&nbsp;– [[lead vocalist|lead]] and [[Backing vocalist|backing vocals]], piano, [[vocals|operatic vocals]] (middle register)
 
*[[Freddie Mercury]]&nbsp;– [[lead vocalist|lead]] and [[Backing vocalist|backing vocals]], piano, [[vocals|operatic vocals]] (middle register)
 
*[[Brian May]]&nbsp;– [[electric guitar]], [[vocals|operatic vocals]] (low register)
 
*[[Brian May]]&nbsp;– [[electric guitar]], [[vocals|operatic vocals]] (low register)
*[[Roger Taylor (Queen drummer)|Roger Taylor]]&nbsp;– [[drums]], [[timpani]], [[gong]], [[vocals|operatic vocals]] (high register)
+
*[[Roger Taylor (Queen drummer)|Roger Taylor]]&nbsp;– [[drums]], [[percussion instrument|percussion]], [[timpani]], [[gong]], [[vocals|operatic vocals]] (high register)
 
*[[John Deacon]]&nbsp;– [[bass guitar]]
 
*[[John Deacon]]&nbsp;– [[bass guitar]]
   

Revision as of 10:44, November 10, 2019

Kids Kids

"Bohemian Rhapsody" is a song by the British rock band Queen. It was written by Freddie Mercury for the band's 1975 album A Night at the Opera. It is a six-minute suite,[1] consisting of several sections without a chorus: an intro, a ballad segment, an operatic passage, a hard rock part and a reflective coda.[2] The song is a more accessible take on the 1970s progressive rock genre.[3] It was reportedly the most expensive single ever made at the time of its release, though the exact cost of production cannot be determined.Template:Sfn

When it was released as a single, "Bohemian Rhapsody" became a commercial success, staying at the top of the UK Singles Chart for nine weeks and selling more than a million copies by the end of January 1976.Template:Sfn It reached number one again in 1991 for another five weeks when the same version was re-released,[4] eventually becoming the UK's third-best-selling single of all time.Template:Sfn It topped the charts in several other markets as well, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and The Netherlands, later becoming one of the best-selling singles of all time. In the United States the song originally peaked at number nine in 1976. It returned to the chart at number two in 1992 following its appearance in the film Wayne's World, which revived its American popularity.

Although critical reaction was initially mixed, "Bohemian Rhapsody" remains one of Queen's most popular songs and is frequently placed on modern lists of the greatest songs of all time. The single was accompanied by a promotional video, which many scholars consider ground-breaking.Template:Sfn Rolling Stone magazine states: "Its influence cannot be overstated, practically inventing the music video seven years before MTV went on the air."[5] In 2004, "Bohemian Rhapsody" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame.Template:Sfn In 2012, the song topped the list on an ITV nationwide poll in the UK to find "The Nation's Favourite Number One" over 60 years of music.[6]

History and recording

Freddie Mercury wrote "Bohemian Rhapsody" at his home in London.Template:Sfn The song's producer, Roy Thomas Baker, related how Mercury once played the opening ballad section on the piano for him: "He played the beginning on the piano, then stopped and said, 'And this is where the opera section comes in!' Then we went out to eat dinner." Guitarist Brian May says the band thought that Mercury's blueprint for the song was "intriguing and original, and worthy of work".Template:Sfn According to May, much of Queen's material was written in the studio, but this song "was all in Freddie's mind" before they started.Template:Sfn Music scholar Sheila Whiteley suggests that "the title draws strongly on contemporary rock ideology, the individualism of the bohemian artists' world, with rhapsody affirming the romantic ideals of art rock".Template:Sfn Commenting on bohemianism, Judith Peraino said that "Mercury intended ... [this song] to be a 'mock opera', something outside the norm of rock songs, and it does follow a certain operatic logic: choruses of multi-tracked voices alternate with aria-like solos, the emotions are excessive, the plot confusing."Template:Sfn In terms of execution, the song is preceded by the Beach Boys' 1966 single "Good Vibrations", which was also pieced together using various different sections.[7]

According to Mercury's friend Chris Smith (a keyboard player in Smile), Mercury first started developing "Bohemian Rhapsody" in the late 1960s; Mercury used to play parts of songs he was writing at the piano, and one of his pieces, known simply as "The Cowboy Song", contained lyrics that ended up in the completed version produced years later, in 1975, specifically, "Mama ... just killed a man."[8] This echoes the opener of a 1962 b-side called Mama by Roy Orbison, which is also on Roy Orbison's Greatest Hits (1962).

Recording began at Rockfield Studio 1 near Monmouth on 24 August 1975, after a three-week rehearsal at Penrhos Court, near Kington, Herefordshire. During the making of the track, an additional four studios (Roundhouse, SARM (East), Scorpion, and Wessex) were used.Template:Sfn According to some band members, Mercury mentally prepared the song beforehand and directed the band throughout.Template:Sfn Mercury used a Bechstein "concert grand" piano, which he played in the promotional video and the UK tour. Due to the elaborate nature of the song, it was recorded in various sections, held together by a drum click to keep all layers synchronised.Template:Sfn

Mercury, May and Taylor reportedly sang their vocal parts continually for ten to twelve hours a day.Template:Sfn The entire piece took three weeks to record, and in some sections featured 180 separate overdubs.Template:Sfn Since the studios of the time offered 24-track analogue tape, it was necessary for the three to overdub themselves many times and "bounce" these down to successive sub-mixes. In the end, eighth-generation tapes were used.Template:Sfn The various sections of tape containing the desired submixes had to be spliced (cut and assembled in the correct sequence). May recalled placing a tape in front of the light and being able to see through it, as they had been recording so intensely.Template:Sfn

Producer Baker recalls that May's solo was done on only one track, rather than recording multiple tracks. May stated that he wanted to compose "a little tune that would be a counterpart to the main melody; I didn't just want to play the melody". The guitarist said that his better material stems from this way of working: in which he thought of the tune before playing it: "the fingers tend to be predictable unless being led by the brain."Template:Sfn

Composition and analysis

"Bohemian Rhapsody" has been affiliated to several genres of music, including progressive rock,[3][9] progressive pop,[10] symphonic rock,[11][12] hard rock,[13] and heavy metal.[14] The song is highly unusual for a popular single in featuring no chorus, combining disparate musical styles and containing lyrics which eschew conventional love-based narratives for allusions to murder and nihilism.[2] It consists of sections, beginning with an introduction, then a piano ballad, before a guitar solo leads to an operatic interlude. A hard rock part follows this and it concludes with a coda. The song is in the keys of Bb major, Eb major, A major and F major, and shifts from a 9/8 meter in the introduction to 4/4.[15] This musical format of writing a song as a suite with changes in style, tone and tempo throughout was uncommon in most mainstream pop and rock music but common in progressive rock. The genre had reached its artistic and commercial zenith between 1970 and 1975 in the music of British bands such as Jethro Tull, Yes, Genesis, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Gentle Giant, Van der Graaf Generator and Curved Air.[16] The music of progressive rock was characterised by dramatic contrasts, frequent shifts in tempo and in rhythmic character from one section of a composition to the next.[17] Bands from the genre had blended rock with classical music, its structural features and compositional practices, as well as using classical music instrumentation.[18] Queen had embraced progressive rock as one of their many diverse influences.[19] "Bohemian Rhapsody" parodies many different elements of opera by using bombastic choruses, sarcastic recitative and distorted Italian operatic phraseology.[20] An embryonic version of this style had already been utilised in Mercury's earlier compositions for the band "My Fairy King" (1973) and "The March of the Black Queen" (1974).

Intro (0:00–0:49)

The song begins with a close five-part harmony a cappella introduction in [[B-flat major|BTemplate:Music]]—entirely multi track recordings of Mercury although the video has all four members lip-syncing this part. The lyrics question whether life is "real" or "just fantasy caught in a landslide" before concluding that there can be "no escape from reality".

After 14 seconds, the grand piano enters, and Mercury's voice alternates with the other vocal parts. The narrator introduces himself as "just a poor boy" but declares that he "needs no sympathy" because he is "easy come, easy go" and then "little high, little low" (the words "little high" come from the left speaker and the "little low" comes from the right); chromatic side-slipping on "easy come, easy go" highlights the dream-like atmosphere. The end of this section is marked by the bass entrance and the cross-handed piano vamp in BTemplate:Music.

Ballad (0:49–3:02)

Template:Listen The piano begins the vamp in BTemplate:Music major along with the entrance of Deacon's bass guitar, marking the onset of this section. After it plays twice, Mercury's vocals enter. Over the course of the section, the vocals evolve from a softly sung harmony to an impassioned solo performance by Mercury. The narrator explains to his mother that he has "just killed a man," with "a gun against his head" and in doing so, has thrown his life away. This "confessional" section, Whiteley comments, is "affirmative of the nurturant and life-giving force of the feminine and the need for absolution".Template:Sfn The bassline brings about a modulation to ETemplate:Music major, underpinning the mood of desperation.Template:Sfn It is at this point (1:19) that Taylor's drums enter (this features the 1-1-2 rhythm of "We Will Rock You" in ballad form), and the narrator makes the second of several invocations to his "mama" in the new key, reusing the original theme. The narrator explains his regret over "mak[ing] you cry" and urging mama to "carry on as if nothing really matters" to him. A brief, descending variation of the piano vamp phrase connects to a two repeat of the vamp in BTemplate:Music major once again, ushering in the second verse.

This segment was very likely inspired by Turiddo’s aria "Mamma, quel vino è generoso," from Pietro Mascagni’s opera Cavalleria rusticana. Both begin with the same word, both are uttered in desperation by someone who has committed an offence and expects to die, both are attempts to exact a promise from a mother, both contain the phrase "...if I'm not back again," (...s'io non tornassi) and both are lyric ariosi for the tenor voice.Template:Or

As the ballad proceeds into its second verse, the narrator shows how tired and beaten down he is by his actions (as May enters on guitar and mimics the upper range of the piano at 1:50). May imitates a bell tree during the line "sends shivers down my spine", by playing the strings of his guitar on the other side of the bridge. The narrator bids the world goodbye announcing he has got to go and prepares to "face the truth" admitting "I don't want to die / I sometimes wish I'd never been born at all." This is where the guitar solo enters.

Guitar solo (2:35–3:02)

Towards the end of the ballad section the band builds in intensity, incorporating a guitar solo (in ETemplate:Music major) played and composed by May. The intensity continues to build, but once the bass line completes its descent establishing modulation to the new key (A major), the entire band cuts out abruptly at 3:03 except for quiet, staccato A major quaver (eighth-note) chords on the piano, marking the start of the "Opera" section.

Opera (3:02–4:07)

Template:Listen A rapid series of rhythmic and harmonic changes introduces a pseudo-operatic midsection, which contains the bulk of the elaborate vocal multi-tracking, depicting the narrator's descent into hell. While the underlying pulse of the song is maintained, the dynamics vary greatly from bar to bar, from only Mercury's voice accompanied by a piano, to a multi-voice choir supported by drums, bass, piano and timpani. The choir effect was created by having May, Mercury, and Taylor sing their vocal parts continually for ten to twelve hours a day, resulting in 180 separate overdubs. These overdubs were then combined into successive submixes. According to Roger Taylor, the voices of May, Mercury and himself combined created a wide vocal range: "Brian could get down quite low, Freddie had a powerful voice through the middle, and I was good at the high stuff." The band wanted to create "a wall of sound, that starts down and goes all the way up".Template:Sfn The band used the bell effect for lyrics "Magnifico" and "Let me go". Also, on "Let me go", Taylor singing the top section carries his note on further after the rest of the "choir" have stopped singing.

Lyrical references in this passage include Scaramouche, the fandango, Galileo Galilei, Figaro, Beelzebub and Bismillah, as rival factions fight over the narrator's soul. Peraino calls the sequence both a "comic courtroom trial and a rite of passage ... one chorus prosecutes, another defends, while the hero presents himself as meek though wily."Template:Sfn The song's introduction is recalled with the chromatic side-slipping on "I'm just a poor boy, nobody loves me." The section concludes with a full choral treatment of the lyric "Beelzebub has a devil put aside for me!", on a block [[B-flat major|BTemplate:Music major]] chord. Roger Taylor tops the final chord with a falsetto BTemplate:Music in the fifth octave (BTemplate:Music5).

Using the 24-track technology available at the time, the "opera" section took about three weeks to finish.Template:Sfn Producer Roy Thomas Baker said "Every time Freddie came up with another 'Galileo', I would add another piece of tape to the reel."Template:Sfn Baker recalls that they kept wearing out the tape, which meant having to do transfers.Template:Sfn

Hard rock (4:07–4:54)

The operatic section leads into an aggressive hard rock/heavy metal musical interlude with a guitar riff written by Mercury. At 4:15, a quadruple-tracked Mercury (the four parts are panned two on the left and two on the right) sings angry lyrics addressed to an unspecified "you", accusing them of betrayal and abuse and insisting "can't do this to me, baby" – which could be interpreted as a flashback to certain events that led to the earlier ballad section ("just killed a man"). Three ascending guitar runs follow. Mercury then plays a similar BTemplate:Music run on the piano, as the song builds up to the finale with a ritardando.

Outro (4:54–5:55)

After May plays ascending octaves of notes from the BTemplate:Music mixolydian mode (composed of the notes from the ETemplate:Music scale), the song then returns to the tempo and form of the introduction, initially in ETemplate:Music Major, before quickly modulating to C minor, only to soon go through an abrupt short series of modulations, bringing it back to C minor again in time for the final "nothing really matters" section. A guitar accompanies the chorus "ooh, ooh yeah, ooh yeah." A double-tracked twin guitar melody is played through an amplifier designed by John Deacon, affectionately nicknamed the "Deacy Amp". Mercury's line "Nothing really matters..." appears again, "cradled by light piano arpeggios suggesting both resignation (minor tonalities) and a new sense of freedom in the wide vocal span".Template:Sfn After the line "nothing really matters" is repeated multiple times, the song finally concludes in the key of ETemplate:Music major, but then changes again to F major just before it ends. According to music scholar Judith Peraino, this final section adds "a level of complex resistance to the song's already charming subversion of macho rock and roll". This resistance is achieved through the "bohemian stance toward identity, which involves a necessarily changeable self-definition ('Any way the wind blows')."Template:Sfn The final line, "Any way the wind blows", is followed by the quiet sound of a large tam-tam that finally expels the tension built up throughout the song.

Context

The New York Times commented that "the song's most distinct feature is the fatalistic lyrics". Mercury refused to explain his composition other than saying it was about relationships; the band is still protective of the song's secret.Template:Sfn Brian May supports suggestions that the song contained veiled references to Mercury's personal traumas. He recalls "Freddie was a very complex person: flippant and funny on the surface, but he concealed insecurities and problems in squaring up his life with his childhood. He never explained the lyrics, but I think he put a lot of himself into that song."Template:Sfn May, though, says the band had agreed that the core of a lyric was a private issue for the composer.Template:Sfn In a BBC Three documentary about the making of "Bohemian Rhapsody", Roger Taylor maintains that the true meaning of the song is "fairly self-explanatory with just a bit of nonsense in the middle".Template:Sfn

Template:Quote box

When the band released a Greatest Hits cassette in Iran, a leaflet in Persian was included with translation and explanations (refers to a book published in Iran called The March of the Black Queen by Sarah Sefati and Farhad Arkani, which included the whole biography of the band and complete lyrics with Persian translation (2000)). In the explanation, Queen states that "Bohemian Rhapsody" is about a young man who has accidentally killed someone and, like Faust, sold his soul to the devil. On the night before his execution, he calls for God saying, "Bismillah" (In the name of God in Arabic), and with the help of angels, regains his soul from Shaitan (The devil in Arabic).Template:Sfn

Despite this, critics, both journalistic and academic, have speculated over the meaning behind the song's lyrics. Some believe the lyrics describe a suicidal murderer haunted by demons or depict events just preceding an execution. The latter explanation points to Albert Camus's novel The Stranger, in which a young man confesses to an impulsive murder and has an epiphany before he is executed, as probable inspiration. Others believe the lyrics were only written to fit with the music, and have no meaning; Kenny Everett quoted Mercury as claiming the lyrics were simply "random rhyming nonsense".Template:Sfn

Still others interpreted them as Mercury's way of dealing with personal issues.Template:Sfn Music scholar Sheila Whiteley observes that Mercury reached a turning point in his personal life in the year he wrote "Bohemian Rhapsody".Template:Sfn He had been living with Mary Austin for seven years but had just embarked on his first love affair with a man. She suggests that the song provides an insight into Mercury's emotional state at the time, "living with Mary ('Mamma', as in Mother Mary) and wanting to break away ('Mamma Mia let me go')".Template:Sfn

Release

When the band wanted to release the single in 1975, various executives suggested to them that, at 5 minutes and 55 seconds, it was too long and would never be a hit.[21] The song was played to other musicians who commented the band had no hope of it ever being played on radio.Template:Sfn According to producer Roy Thomas Baker, he and the band bypassed this corporate decision by playing the song for Capital Radio DJ Kenny Everett: "we had a reel-to-reel copy but we told him he could only have it if he promised not to play it. 'I won't play it,' he said, winking..."Template:Sfn Their plan worked – Everett teased his listeners by playing only parts of the song. Audience demand intensified when Everett played the full song on his show 14 times in two days.Template:Sfn Hordes of fans attempted to buy the single the following Monday, only to be told by record stores that it had not yet been released.Template:Sfn The same weekend, Paul Drew, who ran the RKO stations in the States, heard the track on Everett's show in London. Drew managed to get a copy of the tape and started to play it in the States, which forced the hand of Queen's US label, Elektra. In an interview with Sound on Sound, Baker reflects that "it was a strange situation where radio on both sides of the Atlantic was breaking a record that the record companies said would never get airplay!"Template:Sfn Eventually the unedited single was released, with "I'm in Love with My Car" as the B-side. Following Everett's escapade in October 1975, Eric Hall, a well known record plugger, gave a copy to David "Diddy" Hamilton to play on his weekday Radio One show. Eric stated "Monster, Monster! This could be a hit!"[22]

The song became the 1975 UK Christmas number one, holding the top position for nine weeks.Template:Sfn "Bohemian Rhapsody" was the first song ever to get to number one in the UK twice with the same version,Template:Sfn and is also the only single to have been Christmas number one twice with the same version. The second was upon its re-release (as a double A-side single with "These Are the Days of Our Lives") in 1991 following Mercury's death, staying at number one for five weeks.

In the United States, the single was also a success, although to a lesser extent than in the UK. The single, released in December 1975, reached number nine on the Billboard Hot 100 and was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for sales of one million copies.[23] A re-release in 1992 (popularized by the song's appearance in the hit film Wayne's World) reached number two. In a retrospective interview, Anthony DeCurtis of Rolling Stone explains the song's relatively poor performance in the US charts by saying that it's "the quintessential example of the kind of thing that doesn't exactly go over well in America".Template:Sfn Its chart run of 24 weeks, however, placed it at number 18 on Billboard's year-end chart, higher than some number ones of the year.[24] In its 1992 chart resurgence, it lasted 17 weeks on the chart and peaked at number two, with a year-end chart position of 39. It was certified gold by the RIAA a second time on 8 August 2005 for digital download sales over 500,000, and quadruple platinum on 23 April 2014 for combined digital sales and streams.[23] It has sold 3.8 million digital copies in the US as of February 2015.[25] With the Canadian record-buying public, the single fared better, reaching number one in the RPM national singles chart for the week ending 1 May 1976.[26]

Promotional video

Though some artists had made video clips to accompany songs (including Queen themselves; for example, "Keep Yourself Alive", "Seven Seas of Rhye", "Killer Queen" and "Liar" already had "pop promos", as they were known at the time), it was only after the success of "Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular practice for record labels to produce promotional videos for artists' single releases.[27] These videos could then be shown on television shows, such as the BBC's Top of the Pops, without the need for the artist to appear in person. A promo video also allowed the artist to have their music broadcast and accompanied by their own choice of visuals, rather than dancers such as Pan's People. According to May, the video was produced so that the band could avoid miming on Top of the Pops, since they would have looked off miming to such a complex song.Template:Sfn He also said that the band knew they would be set to appear at Dundee's Caird Hall on tour and unable to appear on the programme anyway.Template:Sfn The video has been hailed as launching the MTV age.Template:Sfn

The band used Trilion, a subsidiary of Trident Studios, their former management Company and recording studio. They hired one of their trucks and got it to Elstree Studios, where the band were rehearsing for their tour. The video was directed by Bruce Gowers, who had directed a video of the band's 1974 performance at the Rainbow Theatre in London, and was recorded by cameraman Barry Dodd and assistant director/floor manager Jim McCutcheon. The video was recorded in just four hours on 10 November 1975, at a cost of £4,500.Template:Sfn The director said that the band was involved in the discussion of the video and the end result, and "was a co-operative to that extent, but there was only one leader."Template:Sfn

The video opens with a shot of the four band members in near darkness as they sing the a cappella part. The lights fade up, and the shots cross-fade into close-ups of Freddie. The composition of the shot is the same as Mick Rock's cover photograph for their second album Queen II. The photo, inspired by a photograph of actress Marlene Dietrich, was the band's favourite image of themselves.Template:Sfn The video then fades into them playing their instruments. In the opera section of the video, the scene reverts to the Queen II standing positions, after which they perform once again on stage during the hard rock segment. In the closing seconds of the video Roger Taylor is depicted stripped to the waist, striking the tam tam in the manner of the trademark of the Rank Organisation's Gongman, familiar in the UK as the opening of all Rank film productions.

All of the special effects were achieved during the recording, rather than editing. The visual effect of Mercury's face cascading away (during the echoed line "go") was accomplished by pointing the camera at a monitor, giving visual feedback, a glare analogous to audio feedback. The honeycomb illusion was created using a shaped lens. The video was edited within five hours because it was due to be broadcast the same week in which it was filmed. The video was sent to the BBC as soon as it was completed and aired for the first time on Top of the Pops in November 1975.Template:Sfn After a few weeks at number one, an edit of the video was created. The most obvious difference is the flames superimposed over the introduction as well as several alternate camera angles.

Critical reaction, acclaim and legacy

File:Bohemian Rhapsody.jpg

Although the song is one of the most revered in popular music history,[28] some initial critical reaction was poor. Melody Maker said that Queen "contrived to approximate the demented fury of the Balham Amateur Operatic Society performing The Pirates of Penzance".Template:Sfn The newspaper's critic Allan Jones heard only a "superficially impressive pastiche" of operatic styles.Template:Sfn However, there has been a positive reception from other musicians, including from Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys, who called it in 1976 "the most competitive thing that's come along in ages" and "a fulfillment and an answer to a teenage prayer—of artistic music".[29] Greg Lake, whose song "I Believe in Father Christmas" was kept from number one in the UK by "Bohemian Rhapsody" when it was released in 1975, acknowledged that he was "beaten by one of the greatest records ever made", describing it as "a once-in-a-lifetime recording".[30]

Addressing the song's enduring popularity, author and music lecturer Dr. Jochen Eisentraut wrote in 2012: "A year before punk made it unfashionable, progressive rock had an astounding success with the theoretically over-length (nearly 6-minute) single 'Bohemian Rhapsody' which bore many of the hallmarks of the 'prog' genre". He said it was "unique at this point to hear a hit single in this style", it was "more accessible than other music of the genre" and was "able to communicate beyond the usual confines of the style".[3] Author and progressive rock historian Stephen Lambe called it a "remarkable" single and said it "provides a neat but coincidental bridge between prog in its prime and the move to more aggressive songwriting", suggesting the song "feels like a grotesque (although probably unintentional) parody of progressive rock".[28] The New Rolling Stone Album Guide described it as "either a prog-rock benchmark or the most convoluted novelty song ever recorded".[31] Writing for the BBC, the Chicago Tribune's music critic Greg Kot called it a "prog-rock pocket operetta" and said the song's "reign as a work of wigged-out genius rather than a dated gimmick testifies to its go-for-broke attitude – one that has resonated across generations".[9]

In 2009, The Guardian's music critic, Tom Service, examined the song's relationship with the traditions of classical music, describing its popularity as "one of the strangest musical phenomena out there":

The precedents of Bohemian Rhapsody are as much in the 19th-century classical traditions of rhapsodic, quasi-improvisational reveries – like, say, the piano works of Schumann or Chopin or the tone-poems of Strauss or Liszt – as they are in prog-rock or the contemporary pop of 1975. That's because the song manages a sleight of musical hand that only a handful of real master-musicians have managed: the illusion that its huge variety of styles – from intro, to ballad, to operatic excess, to hard-rock, to reflective coda – are unified into a single statement, a drama that somehow makes sense. It's a classic example of the unity in diversity that high-minded musical commentators have heard in the symphonies of Beethoven or the operas of Mozart. And that's exactly what the piece is: a miniature operatic-rhapsodic-symphonic-tone-poem.[2]

Comparison was also made between the song and Led Zeppelin's 1971 epic "Stairway to Heaven" by music writers Pete Prown and HP Newquist. They observed both songs were "a slow, introspective beginning and gradual climb to a raging metal jam and back again", with the notable distinction being "while Zeppelin meshed folk influences with heavy metal, Queen opted for the light grandeur of the operetta as part of its hard rock". They said "for sheer cleverness alone, not to mention May's riveting electric work, 'Bohemian Rhapsody' rightfully became one of the top singles of 1975 and established Queen in the elite of seventies rock bands".[13]

The song has won numerous awards, and has been covered and parodied by many artists. In 1977 "Bohemian Rhapsody" received two Grammy Award nominations for Best Pop Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus and Best Arrangement for Voices. In 1977, only two years after its release, the British Phonographic Industry named "Bohemian Rhapsody" as the best British single of the period 1952–77.Template:Sfn It is a regular entry in greatest-songs polls, and it was named by the Guinness Book of Records in 2002 as the top British single of all time.Template:Sfn The song is also listed in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll.[32]

File:Robb Queen.jpg

The song also came in tenth in a BBC World Service poll to find the world's favourite song.Template:Sfn In 2000 it came second to "Imagine" by John Lennon in a Channel 4 television poll of The 100 Best Number 1s. It has been in the top 5 of the Dutch annual "Top 100 Aller Tijden" ("All-Time Top 100 [Singles]") since 1977, reaching number one on eight occasions, more than any other artist.Template:Sfn In 1999, the annual "Top 2000" poll commenced to find the best songs ever made, and "Bohemian Rhapsody" has been ranked number one in all but three years (2005, 2010 and 2014 when it was number two).[33] In a 2012 readers poll conducted by Rolling Stone magazine, "Bohemian Rhapsody" was voted the best vocal performance in rock history.[34]

In 2004, the song was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame.Template:Sfn As of 2004, "Bohemian Rhapsody" is the second most played song on British radio, in clubs and on jukeboxes collectively, after Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale".Template:Sfn On 30 September 2007 on the Radio 1 Chart Show, for BBC Radio 1's 40th birthday, it was revealed that "Bohemian Rhapsody" was the most played song since Radio 1's launch. In 2004, BBC Three featured the song as part of their The Story of... series of documentaries dedicated to specific songs. First broadcast in December 2004, the programme charted the history of the song, discussed its credentials, and took Roger Taylor and Brian May of Queen back to one of the studios in which it was recorded. In 2012, the song topped an ITV poll in the UK to find "The Nation's Favourite Number One" over 60 years of music, ahead of Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" (No. 2), Adele's "Someone like You" (No. 3), Oasis' "Don't Look Back in Anger" (No. 4) and The Beatles' "Hey Jude" (No. 5).[6] The song was also ranked #5 in RadioMafia's list of "Top 500 Songs".[35] The song was also included in the music video games Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock and Rock Band 3. The song was featured in the second trailer for the 2016 film Suicide Squad, and appears on the soundtrack album for the film, covered by American band Panic! at the Disco.[36]

Wayne's World

The song enjoyed renewed popularity in 1992 due to its inclusion in the soundtrack to the film Wayne's World. "Bohemian Rhapsody" was re-released as a double A-side cassette single with "The Show Must Go On" in January 1992 to commemorate the death of Freddie Mercury, with proceeds going to the Magic Johnson Foundation for AIDS research. Following the release of the film and soundtrack album in February, "Bohemian Rhapsody" re-entered the Billboard Hot 100 chart after 16 years, reaching number two.

The film's director, Penelope Spheeris, was hesitant to use the song, as it did not entirely fit with the lead characters, who were fans of less flamboyant hard rock and heavy metal. Mike Myers insisted that the song fit the scene.Template:Sfn

According to music scholar Theodore Gracyk, by 1992, when the film was released, even "classic rock" stations had stopped playing the almost-six-minute song. Gracyk suggests that beginning the tape in the middle of the song after "the lyrics which provide the song's narrative ... forces the film's audience to respond to its presence in the scene without the 'commentary' of the lyrics".Template:Sfn Helped by the song, the soundtrack album of the film was a major hit.Template:Sfn

In connection with this, a new video was released, intercutting excerpts from the film with footage from the original Queen video, along with some live footage of the band. Myers was horrified that the record company had mixed clips from Wayne's World with Queen's original video, fearing that this would upset the band. He said, "they've just whizzed on a Picasso." He asked the record company to tell Queen that the video was not his idea, and that he apologised to them. The band, though, sent a reply simply saying, "Thank you for using our song." This shocked Myers, who said it should be more like him telling Queen, "Thank you for even letting me touch the hem of your garments!"[37]

The Wayne's World video version of "Bohemian Rhapsody" won Queen its only MTV Video Music Award for "Best Video from a Film".Template:Sfn When remaining members Brian May and Roger Taylor took the stage to accept the award, Brian May was overcome with emotion and said that "Freddie would be tickled." In the final scene of said video, a pose of the band from the video from the original "Bohemian Rhapsody" clip morphs into an identically posed 1985 photo, first featured in the "One Vision" video.

The song was also featured in the movie Loaded Weapon 1 in a scene parodying Wayne's World.

40th anniversary

To mark the 40th anniversary of "Bohemian Rhapsody", the song was released on a limited edition 12" vinyl with the original B-side "I'm In Love With My Car" on 27 November 2015 for Record Store Day 2015. Queen also released A Night At The Odeon, Live At Hammersmith 75, on CD, DVD & Blu-ray. This includes the first ever live recorded performance of "Bohemian Rhapsody".

Parodies

Live performances

Template:Listen The a cappella opening was too complex to perform live, so Mercury tried various ways of introducing the song. When the song "Mustapha" became a live favourite, Mercury would often sub in that song's a cappella opening, which was easier to reproduce live as it was only one voice. During the Hot Space Tour, and occasionally at other times, Mercury would do a piano improvisation (generally the introduction to "Death on Two Legs") that ended with the first notes of the song. Often, the preceding song would end, and Mercury would sit at the piano, say a quick word and start playing the ballad section.

File:Hannover7907.jpg

Initially following the song's release, the operatic middle section proved a problem for the band. Because of extensive multi-tracking, it could not be performed on stage. The band did not have enough of a break between the Sheer Heart Attack and A Night at the Opera tours to find a way to make it work live, so they split the song into three sections that were played throughout the night. The opening and closing ballads were played as part of a medley, with "Killer Queen" and "March of the Black Queen" taking the place of the operatic and hard rock sections. In 1976 concerts where the same medley was played, the operatic section from the album would be played from tape as the introduction to the setlist. During this playback, Mercury would appear briefly to sing live for the line, "I see a little sillhouetto of a man".[39] As the song segued into the hard rock section, the band would emerge on the smoke filled stage – the playback would end at this point, and the hard rock section would be performed live (without the final ballad section, which appeared later in the set).

Starting with the A Day at the Races Tour in 1977, the band adopted their lasting way of playing the song live. The opening ballad would be played on stage, and after Brian May's guitar solo, the lights would go down, the band would leave the stage, and the operatic section would be played from tape, while coloured stage lights provided a light show based around the voices of the opera section. A blast of pyrotechnics after Roger Taylor's high note on the final "for me" would announce the band's return for the hard rock section and closing ballad. Queen played the song in this form all through the Magic Tour of 1986. This style was also used for the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert, with Elton John singing the opening ballad and then after the taped operatic section, Axl Rose singing the hard rock section. John and Rose sang the closing ballad part together in a duet.

"Bohemian Rhapsody" was performed by Queen + Paul Rodgers throughout their tours, accompanied by a video of Mercury.Template:Sfn Footage from the Live at Wembley '86 was used for the 2005/6 tour, and the 1981 Montreal performance used for the Rock the Cosmos Tour. As with the Queen tours, the band went backstage for the operatic section, which was accompanied by a video tribute to Freddie Mercury. When the hard rock section began, the lights came back up to the full band on stage, including Rodgers, who took over lead vocals. Rodgers duetted with the recording of Mercury for the "outro" section, allowing the audience to sing the final "Nothing really matters to me", while the taped Mercury took a bow for the crowd. Rodgers would then repeat the line, and the final line ("Any way the wind blows") was delivered with one last shot of Mercury smiling at the audience. Commenting upon this staging, Brian May says that they "had to rise to the challenge of getting Freddie in there in a way which gave him his rightful place, but without demeaning Paul in any way. It also kept us live and 'present', although conscious and proud of our past, as we logically should be."Template:Sfn

"Bohemian Rhapsody" was performed by Queen + Adam Lambert on Queen & Adam Lambert Rock Big Ben Live, with a different live version which has never been done before – the opening ballad was shared between Lambert & Mercury, then after May's guitar solo, instead of the normal light show while the opera section was played from a tape, the band stayed on and performed "Killer Queen" instead. At the end of "Killer Queen", the band performed the rock and outro sections of "Bohemian Rhapsody".

Chart performance

Weekly charts

Chart (1975) Peak
position
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
Chart (1976) Peak
position
Australia (Kent Music Report)[40] 1
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
Canada (RPM)[26] 1
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
Chart (1992) Peak
position
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart
scope="row" Template:Singlechart

Year-end charts

Chart (1975) Position
UK Singles (BMRB)[41] 22
Chart (1976) Position
Canada RPM Top 100[42] 6
UK Singles (BMRB)[43][44] 35
US Billboard Hot 100[24] 18
Chart (1991) Position
UK Singles (Gallup)[45] 2
Chart (1992) Position
UK Singles (Gallup)[46] 15
US Billboard Hot 100[47] 39

Decade-end charts

Chart (1970–79) Position
UK Singles (OCC)[48] 7
Chart (1990–99) Position
UK SinglesTemplate:Citation needed 23

Sales and certifications

Template:Certification Table Top Template:Certification Table Entry Template:Certification Table Entry |- !scope="row"|United States (RIAA) (physical)[23] |Gold |1,000,000^ |- !scope="row"|United States (RIAA) (digital)[23] |4× PlatinumTemplate:Dagger |3,800,000[25] Template:Certification Table Bottom

Template:Small

Queen comments on the song

Template:Cquote

Template:Cquote

Template:Cquote

Personnel

See also

Notes

References

Template:Refbegin

Template:Refend

External links

Template:S-start Template:S-bef Template:S-ttl Template:S-aft Template:S-bef Template:S-ttl Template:S-aft Template:S-bef Template:S-ttl Template:S-aft Template:S-bef Template:S-ttl Template:S-aft Template:S-bef Template:S-ttl Template:S-aft Template:S-end Kids Template:Queen singles Template:UK Christmas No. 1s in the 1970s Template:UK Christmas No. 1s in the 1990s Template:Faust navbox

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.