Casablanca is an American romantic drama film from 1942 , directed by Michael Curtiz and with Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman in the lead roles. The film is based on the play Everybody Comes to Rick's (1940), written by the Americans Murray Burnett and Joan Alison, whose Warner Brothers bought the rights.

Although it was an A-movie with famous actors in the lead roles, nobody expected the film would be a success. Their production and publication were too rushed to take advantage of the publicity surrounding Operation Torch . But Casablanca was a great success.

Content  Edit

  • 1 Synopsis
  • 2 Cast
  • Scenario 3
    • 3.1 Everybody Comes to Rick's
    • 3.2 The screenwriters
    • 3.3 Censorship and interference
    • 3.4 The finished screenplay
  • 4 Production
    • 4.1 Actors
    • 4.2 Authority and cinematography
    • 4.3 Recordings
    • 4.4 Music
  • 5 Receive
  • 6 Awards and nominations
  • 7 Trivia

Synopsis  Edit

The film is set during World War II in the Vichy government of France controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca . Rick Blaine, a man with a shadowy past, has a gambling here. One day a certain Ugarte in Rick's cafe with travel documents entitling the bearer freely by Nazi Germany or travel abroad. He gives the paper in the custody of Rick, then arrested by police commander Louis Renault and dies in the cell below. Nobody knows now that Rick has the valuable documents.

Then appear Ilsa Lund and her husband Victor Laszlo in the cafe. Ilsa is a former lover of Rick and Victor is an opposition leader who is on the run. They have such papers badly needed to neutral Portugal and then to the United States to flee. The German Major Heinrich Strasser knows the plan and come to the bar to prevent the transfer.

Rick is now in conflict with himself: he Victor and Ilsa can give the papers so that they may flee, he can Ilsa seduce and persuade to leave with him to America, or he can sell the papers for money. He must, as stated in the film, choose between love and duty. When the bar is empty, Ilsa demanded the papers under threat of a gun. Rick denies that he has these and Ilsa does not dare shoot. After this she confesses that she is still in love with him.

Victor is then arrested by police commander Renault. Rick knows Victor Louis, however, get far now to release to arrest him later for possession of the travel documents.At the time Victor has the papers and Louis to arrest him again, Rick manages to avoid this by threatening him with a gun. The four drive them to the airport. When Major Heinrich then appears on the airfield, it is shot by Rick.

If the plane of Ilsa and Victor leaves, Louis shows a different side of himself. He proposes to Rick together to Brazzaville to leave to join it in the French Resistance .

Cast Edit

Actors from Casablanca, from left: Paul Henreid, Ingrid Bergman, Claude Rains and Humphrey Bogart

  • Humphrey Bogart : Rick Blaine
  • Ingrid Bergman : Ilsa Lund
  • Paul Henreid Victor Laszlo
  • Claude Rains : Captain Louis Renault
  • Conrad Veidt : Major Heinrich Strasser
  • Sydney Greenstreet : Ferrari
  • Peter Lorre : Ugarte
  • Dooley Wilson : Sam

Scenario Edit

Everybody Comes to Rick's Edit

The source text for the screenplay of Casablanca was Everybody Comes to Rick's , written by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison . Burnett, an American Jew, inherited in 1938 a considerable sum of money from an uncle and decided to use it to visit with his wife's family in Europe. In the summer of that year, the couple traveled to Antwerp. Once there, the young American was asked to go to Vienna to help family there. After the Anschluss Viennese Jews was forbidden because, if to take them wanted to leave the country, valuable possessions with them. At the American consulate was this advised him strongly (as he himself was Jewish) people gave him a pin with the Stars and Stripes and urged him to Austria not to set foot on the streets without visible symbol wear. In Vienna, he saw to his dismay how the Nazis were working on the discrimination and humiliation of Jews. The couple Burnett managed a large quantity of valuables to smuggle out of the country by wearing them on their body (Frances, Murrays woman wearing a fur coat in the middle of summer and Murray wore expensive rings on each finger). [1] He later visited a nightclub in the south of France, where he not only saw an African-American pianist, but also visitors of different nationalities. He incorporated his experiences into play. The character Ilsa hot then Lois Meredith. Lois met Lazlo after her affair with Rick in Paris. The latter is no nightclub owner but a lawyer. The scenario circulated at various studios and there was different about the quality expected. Analyst Stephen Karnot film of Warner Bros. called it "intellectual toad-eating." Samuel Marx MGM offered the writers $ 5000, but was rebuffed by his boss Louis B. Mayer . Despite the negative judgment of Karnot bought Warner Bros. yet the rights. Jack Warner was by Irene Lee of the scenario department persuaded to buy the rights for $ 20 000 in January 1942. That was until then the highest amount paid for the rights of a play not yet in production.

The screenwriters Edit

The working title of the scenario was Everybody is coming to Rick's but was soon transformed in Casablanca, probably echoing the film hit Algiers in 1938. Aeneas MacKenzie and Wally Kline wrote the first draft of the screenplay. After six weeks they disappeared and were Julius and Philip Epstein trot. They were responsible for the character of Renault and the background of Rick. To make it plausible that Rick has withdrawn in Casablanca and has not reported for the US Army, this new screenwriters were situate the events of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. In addition, they changed the background of Rick. He was no longer a lawyer, but a nightclub owner with a vague past. The reason why Rick can not return to the US is not clear in the film. The Epstein admitted that they could think of no reason for it, ultimately the reason they kept deliberately vague. The brothers were also responsible for adding more comic elements. After a while, Howard Koch appointed as additional lyricist. He also wrote the screenplay, but apart from the Epstein. He added more political and melodramatic elements. Casey Robinson and Lenore J. Coffee were hired for several weeks to rewrite different versions. Robinson also assisted in writing a number of scenes between Ilsa and Rick in the nightclub. Robinson and lack Coffee otherwise credited. One of the things that the scriptwriters indiscriminately took from the play, the paper passage of his Vichy France, which play such an important role. In reality, these papers were not. A resistance fighter sought as Lazlo would no longer be arrested, even though he had a thousand paper passage.

Censorship and interference Edit

Director Michael Curtiz also repeatedly tried to interfere with the scenario. He wanted more romantic scenes and insisted that the scenes in Paris remained in the film. There was also external interference. So did Warner Bros. distribute the film in as many countries as possible and for that reason, all the villains of the film from Germany and Italy, countries with which the US was at war. The censorship spoke a word of it.Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the censorship imposed by the film industry in Hollywood itself) had some concerns. As Captain Renault was not allowed to extort sexual favors from his victims and was not allowed to Ilsa and Rick had slept as unmarried in Paris together. Furthermore, Renault's statement was "confused you enjoy. I enjoy women" be changed to "you like war. I like women" to prevent the morals would be hurt. Another text where Breen objection made was the decision of Ilsa, "Victor Laszlo is my husband, and was, Even When I knew you in Paris." The screenplay was adapted and Ilsa says in the film that she thought Lazlo was dead when she was with Rick in Paris. This was sufficient for the censor to withdraw their objection. One of the reasons that the play merely served as a basic story was especially the character of Ilsa or Lois as originally called. The Ilsa from the play sleeps with both Rick and Lazlo and is neither married. She was in fact already married to an American businessman and one of the reasons that they are rejected by Rick correct her marriage. All this 'spicy' developments, however, were for the film censorship unacceptable.

The completed script Edit

Three days before the shooting started, the Epstein made contributions to the scenario. Their colleague Howard Koch took longer. When the recordings were busy for two weeks, he came up with his version of the scenario. It is a myth that the film was shot in chronological order because the scenario was only ready at half the rotation schedule. However, there were still recognized changes and had to Koch and the Epstein constantly turn up when there again rewrites were required. It is also a myth that Ingrid Bergman to be ignorant at the end of the film the character with whom she would flee Casablanca, Rick and Lazlo. The censorship would never have allowed that with Lazlo married Ilsa off going with Rick. The end of the film is wholly consistent with the end of the play. There, too, Rick sends his beloved Ilsa with Lazlo to the aircraft.While writing the script was well considered to have Lazlo die so that Rick could escape with Ilsa, but this was soon abandoned. The very idea of ​​the love triangle involving Rick's sacrifice makes the film what it is. It only had to be plausible why Ilsa Rick specify for Lazlo. For that reason, the end was rewritten repeatedly. This made actress Ingrid Bergman so insecure that she later stated that she no longer knew whether she was now in love with Lazlo or Rick. Even there was still a different ending to the film. Rick, Renault and a detachment of soldiers of Free French forces would be filmed on board a ship participating in the invasion of North Africa. Claude Rains, however, was no longer available and actually found anyone sin to change the original ending. So the idea was quickly abandoned.

Quotes Edit

Six quotes from the film was added to the top 100 movie quotes of the American Film Institute . This is the highest number of citations from a single film. The quotes are:

  • "Here's looking at you, kid."
  • "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."
  • "I'll stick my neck out for nobody."
  • "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine."
  • "Round up the usual suspects.".
  • "We'll always have Paris."

The famous quote "Play it again, Sam" comes into the film not. Ilsa tells the pianist: "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." Rick says later, "You played it for her, you can play it for me. Play it!". But nowhere does it say, "Play it again, Sam." Despite this, "Play it again, Sam" the most famous quote from the movie. Woody Allen later wrote a screenplay with a tribute to Casablanca under the title: Play it again, Sam .

Another quote that is often misquoted, "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship." It is often quoted as saying "This could be the beginning of a beautiful friendship" or "I think this is the start of a beautiful friendship.". The text is incidentally coined by producer Hal B. Wallis when the film was already finished and was in post-production narrated by Bogart. The quote "Here's looking at you, kid" comes from Bogart himself. He used it before in movies. Rumor has it that he often referred to Ingrid Bergman said when he taught her to play poker during the filming.

Production Edit

Actors Edit

Humphrey Bogart was the logical choice of producer Hal B. Wallis for the role of Rick. Earlier, Jack Warner had offered the role to actor George Raft , but he had refused. When Wallis Bogart had chosen, began Raft still get interest in the role and he tried to persuade Jack Warner over to pick him anyway. Warner, however, remained standing behind his producer and the role went to Bogart. Other candidates were not there.Even Ronald Reagan was never a serious candidate. The rumors that he would play Rick are probably the world helped by a press agent who wanted to keep Reagan's name in publicity. Joan Alison, one of the writers of Everybody Comes to Rick's, however, disagreed with the choice of Bogart, whom she regarded as a drunk. She would have preferred Clark Gable had.

Also Ingrid Bergman was actually from the beginning the first choice for the role of Ilsa. She had other than Bogart or competition. Actresses Edwige Feuillère , Michèle Morgan and Tamara Toumanova were also in the running for the role. Also Hedy Lamarr was an option but she was under contract with MGM and did not want to participate in a film whose scenario was not finished. Ingrid Bergman was also under contract elsewhere, with producer David O. Selznick which it was preparing to star in For Whom the Bell Tolls which film would be released in 1943. Producer Hal B. Wallis brothers Epstein sent to Selznick to to persuade him to lend Bergman. Selznick agreed when he received an explanation of the scenario. The story goes that, incidentally Selznick did not understand the story and Jules Epstein desperately cried out, 'It's the same crap as Algiers . What probably really helped was that Warner Bros. Olivia de Havilland loaned to Selznick.

Wallis struggled with the choice for the role of Victor Lazlo. There were not suitable foreign actors and he was considering a choice of Herbert Marshall , Dean Jagger and Joseph Cotten . Paul Henreid was willing to play Victor Lazlo. Henreid was initially lukewarm. He was under contract with Selznick and objected to his loan to Warner Bros. Henreid feared that a subordinate role his acting career in romantic lead roles would undermine. Many of the extras and actors playing a German in the film were fleeing German Jews and Germans who were against the reign of the Nazis. Also, Conrad Veidt , who plays a major in the SS, was anti-Nazi. He had to flee Germany in the thirties because the SS wanted to murder him. For his role in the film, incidentally, received $ 25,000 for a recording time of five weeks. He was the highest paid actor who starred in Casablanca. The role of pianist Sam was played by drummer Dooley Wilson . WIlson could not play the piano and therefore imitating the hand movements of pianist Elliot Carpenter . As the music was recorded simultaneously with the filming Carpenter was hidden behind a curtain, but so that Wilson could see him. Incidentally, it was really close, or the role of Sam was played by a woman. Producer Wallis was consideringHazel Scott , Lena Horne , and Ella Fitzgerald to adopt.

Directing and cinematography Edit

Producer Hal B. Wallis had first contact with director William Wyler to make the direction of Casablanca. But Wyler was unavailable. Wallis decided when Michael Curtiz to hire. Director Howard Hawks told later that he was first approached in the direction of Casablanca and Curtiz Sergeant York would direct. Curtiz according Hawks had little appetite for his project, while he himself saw little in Casablanca. During lunch they would then exchanged project. Curtiz was of Hungarian descent and was active since the early twenties in the US After all these years he still had a heavy Hungarian accent which resulted in many problems in communication. During the shooting of Casablanca early Curtiz a 'poodle' to the props department. One of the staff was desperately looking for a dog, a poodle, while the recordings were stopped. When the good guy finally found a poodle and brought him to the set, Curtiz flew into a rage, he referred to a "puddle of water (or a water puddle). Curtiz had little input into the scenario already he tried to interfere with it. This led to the idea that Casablanca was no real Curtizfilm, but more a job in between. Later critics, such as Sidney Rosenzweig, Casablanca still look like a typical Curtisfilm waarinj his favorite theme, the confrontation of the characters with moral dilemmas, could show. Besides Curtis was also a second unit active. This group was led by Don Siegel and was responsible for the opening scenes with the group of refugees and the scenes in which the Germans invade France. The camerawork of cinematographer was Arthur Ederson also the cinematography of The Maltese Falcon had done. He filmed especially Ingrid Bergman left her favorite and paid much attention to her face through the use of filters.

Recordings Edit

The recordings were supposed to start on April 10, 1942, but was only launched on 25 May by sorts of delays. On August 3, one was finished and the total cost had amounted to $ 1,039,000, - with a small budget exceeding $ 75,000. The film was incorporated in chronological order, mainly because at the beginning of the recording, the scenario was not finished. Almost all the recordings were made in the studio. There was the cafe Rick recreated. It consisted of three unconnected parts, so that the layout was not determined. The decor based the set designers on the real-life Hotel El Minzah in Tangier. This was the only scene which was built especially for the film. All other sets, like the streets of Casablanca and Paris, were existing sets for the film The Desert Song which have been modified. For a train set was used in Paris of the film Now, Voyager (1942). The reason for the re-use was a construction which stop the government imposed in connection with the war. For scenes that play in Paris was some stock footage used. The final scene of the film where Rick, Ilsa and Laszlo put on the plane, is famous for its fog, which gives the scene the right atmosphere. Missing, however, was a ploy to hide the fact that the plane, a Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior, was actually a smaller copy of cardboard. Lilliputians were used to give the illusion that the aircraft is greater than it actually was. The only scene that was recorded was the arrival of Major Strasser outside the studio at the airport. This was done when the so-called Metropolitan Airport, now known as Van Nuys Airport , near Los Angeles. It was important that there was chemistry between the actors Bogart and Bergman. Ingrid Bergman was preparing by The Maltese Falcon with Bogart in the lead several times to see. A problem arose when it appeared that Bogart was smaller than 5 centimeters Bergman. Director Michael Curtiz left his protagonist stand on boxes and sit on cushions during filming to create the illusion that Bogart was longer than costar. Unfortunately, that hit the disturbed continuity in the film and seems to change the length of Bogart and Bergman in the film. Bogart and Bergman, moreover, were not so happy with the film. The former wife of Bogart Mayo Methot was terribly jealous of Bergman and constantly accused her husband of adultery. Bogart thus became so enraged that he appeared regularly upset on the set. There was no evidence of an affair between him and his counterpart. Despite all the on-screen chemistry was there between takes virtually no contact between Bogart and Bergman, they hardly spoke to each other. Actually both actors wanted to be ready as soon as possible with the film. They found the senario ridiculous, especially the dialogues, and they were worried that the film would damage their careers. When the recording was finished and it was busy with post-production, US troops landed in North Africa. On November 8, 1942 Casablanca was taken. The film itself would only be premiered in the spring of 1943. One attempt was made to call the invasion of the film, but the studio bosses found this not a good idea. A preview revealed that the film was so well put together that modifications were necessary. Jack Warner have moved forward and the premiere on November 26, 1942 the film premiered in New York. The official launch date was January 23, 1943.

Music Edit

Music plays an important role in the film. The composer Max Steiner , who had composed the music for Gone with the wind . Steiner used a number of compositions by other composers and also took advantage of earlier work by himself. Thus the music at the beginning of the film played by the film The Lost Patrol from 1934. Steiner matched the pace and changed the instrumentation. He also made use of songs by others. To hear, "It Had to Be You" (1924) by Isham Jones and Gus Kahn, "Shine" (1910) Ford Dabney, Cecil Mack and Lew Brown, "Avalon" (1920) by Al Jolson, and Buddy DeSylva Vincent Rose). The only original song was "Knock on Wood" by MK Jerome and Jack Scholl.

But the main issue of the film As Time Goes By . The number connects Ilsa and Rick and reminds them of the time in Paris. However, it was not written specifically for the film. This very sad Steiner royalties to himself saw go by. He said after the recordings still to Hal B. Wallis on to write another song and scenes where As Time Goes By a role playing about. This is impossible because what Bergman had meanwhile started recording for For Whom the Bells Toll. For this film, she had cut her hair short. As Time Goes By dates back to 1931 and was written by Herman Hupfeld for the Broadway show Everybody's Welcome to 1931 when singer Frances Williams sings the song. As Time Goes By was the personal favorite of Murray Burnett, one of the two authors of Everbody Comes to Rick's. He incorporated the song in the play and the film version was taken -up grief Steiner. After the film was As Time Goes By 21 weeks in the charts. The song entered the charts was not the movie version, but reissue version bandleader recorded in 1931, Rudy Vallee . Due to a music ban declared by the music associations in the mid-war version of the Casablanca could not be used.

The film is a so-called battle between the national anthems. The café Rick sing the Germans Die Wacht am Rhein in. The group of refugees puts the counterattack by the Marseillaise to deploy the national anthem of France. Initially, the intention was that the Germans Horst Wessel Lied would sing, but still rested on copyright. Die Wacht Am Rhein dated from 1840 and sings the German steadfastness against the French who want to invade the Rhineland and could be used freely.

Reception Edit

The film was a great success immediately, and since then has remained popular. In the top 250 of the Internet Movie Database , the film ranked high. Film Critics praise the charismatic acting of Bogart and Bergman, who are extremely well adapted to each other, the deep character sketch, directing the handsome, spiritual text and the emotional impact of the work in its entirety.

Awards and nominations Edit

The film was in 1943 nominated for eight Oscars which it won three, for the best film , the best director and best screenplay based on a novel.

Trivia Edit

  • About the raincoat worn in the movie by Bogart, has existed for some time discussion. According to the clothing brand Burberry was specially produced by them for Bogart. To emphasize this fact extra strength has been put a picture from the movie on the history page of the company on the website of the British brand. But the son of Humphrey Bogart took this a lawyer, he felt this was completely illegal Burberry violated his father's portrait rights. Not only from a commercial point of view, but also because Humphrey Bogart as private and son Stephen in the film a trench coat wearing the rival British brand Aquascutum .
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