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Paris ( French : Paris) is the capital and seat of government of France . It is also a department . With 2.25 million residents in the city of Paris itself and over 11 million in the entire metropolitan area , including the banlieues ( suburbs ) and the commuter towns around it, it is the largest city in France and the ninth city in Europe (and the fourth urban area in Europe after Moscow, Istanbul and London). According to estimates by the Insee had the city of Paris without agglomerations 2009 2257981 inhabitants (Parisians, French Parisiens and Parisiennes), while there including the agglomerations in 1999 already 11.17474 million were. [1] [2] [3]

The entire area of Paris and all agglomerations is 2723 km². [4] The city is bisected by the River Seine . Paris is founded on the Ile de la Cité , but has become so large that the city covers an area of seven hills. In this area were previously separate villages, which are now a part of Paris. Paris is now alongside London , New York andTokyo as one of the four major metropolises .

In Europe and in the world, Paris was an early center of culture . The city lies at a crossroads of many different trade routes. The city has become very internationally orientated thanks to an extensive infrastructure on land and in the air. In 2004 Paris was visited by a record number of tourists (25 million), according to figures from the Office du Tourisme et des Congres de la capitale française. [5]

Already in the 10th century , when the Notre Dame and a number of monasteries were built, Paris was one of the main cities of France and also a major site forChristianity . Since the 13th century , it is pre-eminently a city where education , art and recreation occupy a central place. This development is partly due to the historicallycentralist policy which for centuries has been conducted in France then this is a republic and a monarchy was. Within the framework of this policy was very much significance to the capital. Since the 1960s, France's political policy within characterized by decentralization and deconcentration , leaving little more balance within the country has emerged.

Contents  Edit

  • 1 Name
    • 1.1 Etymology
    • 1.2 Nicknames
  • 2 Geography
    • 2.1 Topography
    • 2.2 Hydrography
    • 2.3 Geological history
    • 2.4 Climate
  • 3 History
    • 3.1 Historic / Ancient
    • 3.2 Middle Ages
    • 3.3 Renaissance and Enlightenment
    • 3.4 Modern Times
  • 4 Demographics
    • 4.1 Suburbs
    • 4.2 Demographic development
  • 5 Culture
    • 5.1 Nightlife
    • 5.2 popfestivals
    • 5.3 Theater
    • 5.4 Food and drink
    • Shopping 5.5
    • 5.6 Architecture
  • 6 Important sights
    • 6.1 Monuments and buildings
    • 6.2 Churches and Cathedrals
    • 6.3 Museums
    • 6.4 Bridges
    • 6.5 Squares
    • 6.6 Landscaping
    • 6.7 Other sites and buildings
    • 6.8 Local attractions
  • 7 Politics and government
  • 8 Traffic and transport
    • 8.1 Air traffic
    • 8.2 Road traffic
    • 8.3 Public Transport
    • 8.4 Fietsverkeer
    • 8.5 Railways
  • 9 Media
    • 9.1 Television
    • 9.2 Newspapers
  • 10 Famous Parisians
  • 11 Town twinning
  • 12 See also
  • 13 External links
  • 14 Footnotes
  • 15 Literature

[Name edit ] Edit

[Etymology edit ] Edit

The name Paris is derived from a Gallic tribe, the Parisii , and in fact a shortening of the Latin expression Civitas Parisiorum ("City of the Parisii"). [6] This name is replaced by Lutetia . In the days of the Roman Empire , the Parisii were also near East Riding of Yorkshire encountered. About the ultimate origin of the name of this tribe is uncertain. The name of the Parisii is also in place names Villeparisis , Cormeilles-en-Parisis , Fontenay-en-Parisis and the whole region Parisis . Not a serious alternative explanation referred to Rabelais , in his Gargantua is that the name Paris would be a contraction of par ris, which means "to laugh" means. [7]

[Nicknames edit ] Edit

Parisians indicate the city sometimes informally with Paname. For many, the city is also known as the city of light or the city of love.

Although the official French name Parisiens / Parisiennes is, Parisians are particularly South French informally called Parigots / Parigotes.

[Geography edit ] Edit

[Topography edit ] Edit

Paris Located in the north of France, in the region Île-de-France and the Seine River. The real historic center is built on two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité which is the oldest part of the city. In general, Paris is relatively flat, with the lowest point at 35 meters above the sea level. Paris is on both sides of the river along a number of hills: the Montmartre (130 meters), [8] the Belleville (128.5 meters) which opens onto the rue du Telegraphe , the Ménilmontant (108 meters), theButtes-Chaumont (103 m), Passy (71 meters) and the Chaillot (67 meters). East of the River Seine are the hills of Montparnasse (66 meters), Butte-aux-Cailles (63 meters) and Montagne Sainte-Geneviève (61 meters).

In 1844 the actual city of Paris was the city wall of Thiers separated from the suburbs. The last major annexation of Paris by the surrounding regions in 1860 got its present size, and since then included the current twenty arrondissements . [9] In the 1920s, the city was again substantially expanded by 8.9 km². In 1929, the parks wereBois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes in Paris officially added, making the current area covers an area of 105.39 square kilometers. Without these two parks the total area of ​​86.928 square kilometers Paris. Today the city is the suburban separated by a 35 km long ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique , of Paris's historic center, via the Portes de Paris connects the suburbs.

[Hydrography edit ] Edit

Canal Saint-Martin

The Seine flows on the southeastern side of the city of Paris and flows of the city on the southwestern side again. Across the Seine walk more than thirty bridges from one to another district. Two other smaller rivers that flow through Paris, are the Bièvre and in 1825 initiated Canal Saint-Martin , partially under the rue du Faubourg-du-Temple flows and represents the final part of the 108 km long Canal de l'Ourcq . This canal flows under the Place de la Bastille by before it flows just upstream of the Ile Saint Louis in the Seine. From the basin of Villette springs the 4.5 kilometer Canal Saint-Denis , which in 1821 has been opened. [10]

Geological history [ edit ] Edit

The Paris Basin consists of a large number of sediment layers . The oldest strata in the Quartier d'Auteuil (16th district) and found date from the Sparnacien . They consist of sand and clay . The slightly younger layers date from the Lutetian and consist of gypsum and limestone . [11]

The Paris basin has formed some 41 million years ago when an inland sea that was surrounded by the Vosges , the Massif Central and the Armorican Massif . With the formation of the Alps , the basin is largely closed. It remained open in the direction of the Channel and the Atlantic , causing the river basins of the Loire and the Seinewere formed. At the end of the Oligocene was the Paris Basin became continental. [12] In the Paris Catacombs is except limestone and gypsum also lots of Frenchsandstone encountered (Calcaire Lutetian). [11]

The limestone is until the 14th century, used for buildings, the Place d'Italie to the Rue de Vaugirard . Limestone is now obtained in other parts of France, for example in the area of Saint-Maximin . Gypsum is mostly mined in Montmartre and Bagneux .

The Paris Basin is one of the first places in the world where a geological map was created. On this basis, Georges Cuvier many of his ideas in the field of paleontology and comparative anatomy developed. In 1911 showed Paul Lemoine that the Paris Basin consists of concentric shaped depressions. [13] [14]

Paris urbanization has also had a major impact on the hydrogeology of the city. In the 19th century the Bièvre overvaulted had to be for reasons of hygiene.

In the soil beneath Paris have large groundwater reservoirs present. They are using Artesian springs exploited.

[Climate edit ] Edit

Paris has a maritime climate with little thermal amplitudes (no extreme high or low temperatures). The city has - compared to the rest of France - pretty cool summers with an average temperature of 18 ° C. Winters are relatively mild with little snow and an average temperature between 3 ° C and 8 ° C. Spring and autumn in Paris expired usually mild. The average annual rainfall is 650 mm with light rainfall distributed throughout the year. The highest temperature ever in Paris was 40.4 ° ​​C on July 28, 1948 and the lowest was -23.9 ° C on 10 December 1879. [15]

Weather Averages for Paris, France
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average maximum (° C) 6.9 8.2 11.8 14.7 19.0 21.8 24.4 24.6 20.8 15.8 10.4 7.8 15.5
On average, minimum (° C) 2.5 2.8 5.1 6.8 10.5 13.3 15.5 15.4 12.5 9.2 5.3 3.6 8.5
Rainfall (mm) 53.7 43.7 48.5 53.0 65.0 54.6 63.1 43.0 54.7 59.7 51.9 58.7 649.6
Source: Météo-France [16]

Panorama over the Seine linking the Pont Saint-Michel and left the Notre Dame

History [ edit ] Edit

See History of Paris for the main article on this subject.

Historic / Ancient [ edit ] Edit

Caldarium from the Roman terms of Cluny .

Reconstructed plan of the Paris 1223.

The Ile de la Cité in the 15th-century book of hours the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry .

In all likelihood, the area where the current Paris is all throughout the Neolithic inhabited. Traces found from the Chasseen period (4000 -. 3800 BC), a resident in the area on the right bank of the Seine (which is now the 12th district . Located) [17] Also, there are remains recovered from the so-called village of Bercy which must have existed 400 years before the beginning of the Christian era at the site of Paris. These remains are now on display at the Musée Carnavalet .

In 52 BC. conquered Julius Caesar despite the opposition of Vercingetorix the village of the Parisii to which he then gave the name Lutetia Parisiorum. The location was strategically important because trade routes led past this place. Where the Gallic settlement was previously occupied exactly is not known, it is possible that this was not the place of the actual Paris but around the current Nanterre . [18]

In the 1st century, is on the left bank of the Seine under the checkerboard pattern a new Roman city built. Lutetia counted at that time five or six thousand inhabitants and was therefore no more than a medium-sized Gallic town, unlike some other cities, such as Lugdunum (now Lyon ) which were much larger (in the 2nd century there were probably between 50,000 and Lugdunum 80,000 inhabitants).

According to tradition Lutetia in the 3rd century by Dionysius of Paris renamed a Christian city. When the Roman Empire fell into disrepair, Lutetia was flooded by the Great Migration , where many residents to the fortified Ile de la Cité fled.

In the spring of 451 Paris was attacked by Attila the Hun . The Parisii and the girl Genoveva or Genevieve, later patron saint of the city, withstood the attacks of the Huns . The siege and the attacks of the Huns failed and they slunk off to Orléans .

Medieval [ edit ] Edit

In 506 made ​​king Clovis I Lutetia of the capital of the Frankish Empire . In the 8th century, was the first church built on the other side of the Seine, the Église Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais . In 845 were the first raids by the Vikings place, which until almost a century later came to an end with the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte .

From 987 France was ruled by the House of Capet , which initially Orléans as residence chosen over Paris. In the course of the 11th century Paris, however, became increasingly the main center of the French education and the royal power. Louis VI was the first French king who settled permanently in Paris. Still later built Philip II have been known fence around the city. During this time, Paris was also becoming an international trade center, thanks to the direct connection to the Foire du Lendit at nearby Saint-Denis .

In 1163 began bishop Maurice de Sully with the construction of the Notre-Dame .

In the 13th century was the right bank of the Seine drained, which was marshy until then. It was also during this time under King Louis IX increasing trade with the Hanseaticdriven and the first were provosts including Etienne Boileau appointed and so there was a dual power system. [19]

Due to the flourishing trade Paris became increasingly important. During the 14th century the population had grown to 200,000. [20] Paris had therefore become larger than London. [21] In 1328 the city was, however, to deal with the plague , causing the population waned for a time.

When King Charles V built his fence around Paris, were present IIIe and 4th arrondissement added to the city. The fence stretched from Pont Royal to Porte Saint-Denis .

The Hundred Years War meant that provost Etienne Marcel took advantage of the discontent among the people themselves to gain more power. He did this through his Big Regulation of 1357 and through him unprovoked uprising February 22, 1358 . The king was staying at that time not in the center of the city, but in the later devastated Hôtel Saint-Pol and the Hôtel des Tournelles . In 1407 came in response to the execution of Louis I the civil war between the Armagnacs and Burgundians out. This battle was to1420 last.

From 1420 Paris was occupied by the British. In 1429 succeeded Joan of Arc is not to liberate Paris from the English. Charles VII and his son Louis XI did not stay much longer in Paris because it had become a dangerous city. Instead they chose the valley as a principal residence.

When the occupation was finally behind us, there was again a lot of construction activity place. Remains of these are the Pont Neuf and Luxembourg Gardens (Les Jardins du Luxembourg). Between 1422 and 1500 the population of Paris increased from 100,000 to 150,000.

[Renaissance and Enlightenment edit ] Edit

Paris in 1618.

Storming of the Bastille during the French Revolution.

In 1528 established King Francis I in Paris and has requested that henceforth be taught in the science and humanism . For this he founded in 1530, the Collège de France on.At the same time, the population of Paris rose to 280,000, that Paris remained the largest Christian city in the world. [20]

On August 24, 1572, under King Charles IX , the St. Bartholomew place. The French Catholic League during the Barricades Day 1588 was the Catholic League in rebellion against Henry III , who fled and was killed. [22] In 1594, Henry IV , the new king after having repented.

A new Day of the Barricades (1648) heralded the beginning of the Fronde in a period marked by an economic crisis and distrust of the king. [23]

Louis XIV in 1677 chose Versailles as a residence. Five years later, the French government also located here, and took Jean-Baptiste Colbert Paris on the board itself. During his reign, Louis XIV has visited Paris only 24 times, which draws its hostility to the Parisian population. [24] Despite a death rate that was higher than the birth rate grew Parisian population at this time anyway to 400,000. This was due to the massive immigration from the countryside.

During the Enlightenment , Paris was favorite place for the salons . The most famous salon of the era of Marie-Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin . In the same period there was a strong economic and demographic growth, making Paris on the eve of the French Revolution already had 640,000 inhabitants. [25]

Regent Philippe d'Orléans traded in Versailles in 1715 for the Palais-Royal . The young Louis XV settled initially in the Tuilerieënpaleis to make subsequent return to the Palace of Versailles . [26] At that time formed Luxembourg 's eastern boundary of the city. In 1749 Louis XV decided the current Place de la Concorde to set up, and in 1752 he set up a military training. [27] In 1754, he decided to build a church, which later became known as the Pantheon . [ 28]

On July 14th 1789 was the storming of the Bastille place, an event the French Revolution ushered in.

Modern Times [ edit ] Edit

Urinal in Paris around 1865 (Avenue du Maine).

Brought down the Vendôme Columnduring the Paris Commune.

The German occupation of Paris during the Second World War .

During the reign of Napoleon III Paris was thoroughly rebuilt by Georges-Eugène Haussmann . In Paris lived many miners in small houses. Neighborhood by neighborhood was demolished, then Paris with wide boulevards , avenues and large squares was reconstructed. That also made it easier to keep Paris of the population under control. The best known of these new avenues, the Champs-Élysées . The houses in Paris all have a light color, because they are with limestone have been built. Near Paris were many limestone quarries.

One of the darkest days in the history of Paris was May 28 in 1871 , when 20,000 Parisians lost their lives during an uprising known as the Paris Commune has entered history.

During the Third Republic broke a period of prosperity that has come to be known as the Belle Epoque . At this time came with the outbreak of the First World War to an end.Paris was not occupied during the war, but the society became dislocated and during the interwar period the contradictions between the social classes became very sharp.During the Second World War, Paris was in June 1940, occupied by the Germans. On 25 August 1944, Paris was liberated.

During the Fifth Republic bounced back to Paris, it was in 1958 the Etablissement Public pour l'aménagement de La Défense founded (EPAD), the development, just outside Paris, the business district of La Defense would coordinate. In 1963 began the construction of the ring road of Paris, the Boulevard Périphérique .

Vice-mayor Jacques Chirac (1977-1995) and his successor Jean Tiberi (1995-2001) creep in the municipality of Paris all kinds of corrupt practices. The predominantly conservative population of Paris as it gets enough that in 2001 a socialist Bertrand Delanoe , mayor chooses, despite the fact that he openly comes out to be gay. On October 27, 2005 broke serious riots in the Parisian suburbs from where disadvantaged young people and massive destruction inflicted to blows with riot police. The riots kept more than two weeks.

On January 7, 2015 committed Islamist terrorists attack on Charlie Hebdo in Paris. Chérif Kouachi and Saïd Kouachi killed ten employees of the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo , including Stephane Charbonnier , which is on the hit list of Al Qaeda was. Also, two policemen were killed. One of them was the corps protecting people as bodyguard assigned to Charb. France announced a day of national mourning off.

[Demographics edit ] Edit

The actual church Paris and also department has about 2,257,981 inhabitants 10,525 hectares , representing a 20,400 inhabitants per km². The region Île-de-France has 12 million inhabitants.

Paris is known for its multicultural society . Ever since the Middle Ages attract immigrants to Paris, the Dutch and Swedish students to the student quarter Quartier Latin pulled in the 14th century to the present Africans and East Asians in the Goutte d'Or .

The largest groups of foreign origin who now live in Paris come from the following countries:

  • Immigrants from Spain and Portugal arrived mainly between 1950 and 1975. From 1975, the inflow dropped sharply, partly as a result of the democratization of Spain and Portugal.
  • Immigrants from Morocco , Algeria , Tunisia , Libya and Egypt came mainly from 1950 to 2000. For several years, there are fewer people from these countries.
  • Immigrants from Central Africa and South Africa came from 1975. Their numbers continue to rise in recent years.
  • Immigrants from Vietnam ( Vietnamese, Chinese and Vietnamese ) arrived during the war that was going on there. The immigrants came mainly between 1960 and 1980. Their remains stable even though in recent years fewer and fewer immigrants are recovered from Vietnam. The number of immigrants from China ( Chinese Frenchmen ) has risen in recent years. Paris is home to the largest Chinese community in Europe . [source?] Paris has 3 Chinese neighborhoods . The 13th district has the most Chinese facilities.
  • Immigrants from colonies of France such as Guadeloupe , Martinique and French Polynesia were between 1960 and 2000. Their numbers remain stable.
  • Immigrants from Eastern Europe such as Poland , Hungary , Bulgaria and Romania only came from the accession to the European Union : in 2004 for Poland and Hungary and 2007 for Bulgaria and Romania.Their number continues to rise sharply.

[Suburbs edit ] Edit

Satellite image of the agglomeration of Paris . This has been clearly shown that urbanization has spread along the valleys and roads along the riverbank.

Between 1870 and 1940 Paris got a new face. Under Napoleon III, the city was already adapted to demographic developments, but until 1860 the city was not extended beyond the enceinte de Thiers . As a result of the so-called rural exodus , combined with the economic growth of the city, however, was overcrowded hit. In this time also originated the concept of suburbs and was often the région parisienne spoken than the city of Paris. The problems which had to do with infrastructure were only resolved in 1961, when Paul Delouvrier at the request of Charles de Gaulle with the construction of five planned cities and the Réseau Express Régional began. This expansion, however, was also accompanied by a further spread of the administrative power.

While the total population of Paris for a long time more or less remained stable, the number of people living since the end of the 19th century, rose sharply in the banlieues. At the beginning of the 21st century live almost 80% of the total population in the Parisian banlieues.

Demographic development [ edit ] Edit

The figure below shows the development of the population (source: INSEE counts ). 

Culture [ edit ] Edit

Moulin Rouge

Nightlife [ Edit ] Edit

The Moulin Rouge and Le Lido are famous nightclubs in Paris, where many shows take place. There are also many elite eight clubs where there is a strict door policy, and where very high prices asked.At most clubs must be paid entrance. The popular nightlife of Parisian youth concentrates now on the streets just east and northeast of Place de la Bastille .

Popfestivals [ edit ] Edit

  • Rock en Seine
  • Villette Sonique (late May)

Theater [ edit ] Edit

Opera Garnier

Paris has a number of known and lesser-known theaters:

  • Opera Bastille
  • Opera Garnier
  • Opéra Comique
  • Théâtre du Châtelet
  • Théâtre de l'Odéon
  • Cité de la musique
  • Salle Pleyel

Food and drink [ edit ] Edit

Café de Flore in the 11th district

In total there are approximately 8,000 restaurants, ranging from ten to three starred many bistros and cafes where one can order off a menu. Virtually all the cuisines of the world are represented in Paris.

There are many bars and restaurants with terrace in Paris. Drink on the terrace in France, however, a lot more expensive than drinking in the bar.

Shopping [ edit ] Edit

Galeries Lafayette

Rue de Rivoli

Paris is known for its shopping opportunities in the field of fashion, from simple to haute couture and perfumes . Most stores will open at 09.00 and close at 19.00. On Sunday everything is closed, apart from markets and small grocery stores, and shops are located near tourist attractions. Also in his 4th arrondissement shops in the districts of theMarais and Ile Saint-Louis opened.

The vast amount of shops in Paris, especially in the center, consists of:

  • department stores. The best known are Galeries Lafayette , Le Bon Marché and Printemps . Marks & Spencer returned after a closure of several years back in 2011;
  • shopping centers , such as Les Halles ;
  • shopping : Place Vendome and Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honore for luxury brands to the Champs Elysees and Rue de Rivoli. Also, each district has its own shopping area where some are mainly bought more items;
  • many kinds of shops and boutiques to include clothing, shoes, accessories, books, music, perfumes, delicacies, household, home, children, antique, paper and drawing materials;
  • Markets: there are about 70 markets in Paris, which opened on different days. The market on Rue Mouffetard is the most obvious.

Well-known shopping areas are:

  • Champs Elysees
  • Boulevard Haussmann
  • Rue de Rivoli
  • Avenue Montaigne
  • Boulevard des Italiens
  • Boulevard des Capucines
  • Boulevard de la Madeleine
  • Rue Royale
  • Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré

[Architecture edit ] Edit

Comparison of some high points in Paris

The tallest building is the Eiffel Tower with a height of 325 meters. Paris with more tall buildings received its own skyline. Because the space is at a premium must be in the height. Yet, in comparison with, for example New York City , relatively few high-rise buildings .

Several skyscrapers are found around the stations Austerlitz , Lyon and Bercy (including François Mitterrand site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France ). There are not many in Paris skyscrapers higher than 100 meters. A number of them is around the Montparnasse station in the same district . The hotel Pullman Paris Montparnasse , until 2011Hôtel Méridien Montparnasse called, is 120 meters high. With 210 meters, the Tour Montparnasse , the tallest skyscraper in Paris. After the rather controversial construction of this building more skyscrapers was banned in the city.

Most skyscrapers agglomeration therefore outside the péripherique, particularly in the business district of La Défense , the largest business center in Europe. Many of the skyscrapers of La Défense are between 100 and 200 meters high, such as the Tour Total of 190 meters. A highlight is the Tour First , which is the tallest skyscraper in France with 231 meters.

A panoramic view of the business district of La Défense

Major attractions [ edit ] Edit

Arc de Triomphe

Conciergerie

Notre Dame

Sacre Coeur

Louvre with in the foreground thepyramid

Grand Palais seen from the Pont Alexandre III

Place de la Concorde

Parc Montsouris

Père Lachaise Cemetery

Disneyland Resort Paris

There are many tourist attractions in Paris.

See also: List of Parisian landmarks

Monuments and buildings [ edit ] Edit

  • The Eiffel Tower
  • The Arc de Triomphe
  • Les Invalides
  • Élysée Palace , official residence of the President of the French Republic
  • Conciergerie
  • Panthéon
  • Hôtel de Ville
  • The Saint-Jacques Tower
  • The Montparnasse Tower , a 210 meter high skyscraper
  • The Grande Arche in the business district of La Défense
  • Palais de Chaillot , built in 1937 for the Universal Exhibition
  • Palais du Luxembourg
  • Grand Palais
  • Opera Garnier
  • Palais Royal

Churches and cathedrals [ edit ] Edit

  • Cathédrale Saint-Louis des Invalides
  • Eglise de la Madeleine
  • Eglise de la Sainte Trinite
  • Saint-Étienne-du-Mont
  • Saint-Eustache, Paris
  • Saint-Germain-des-Prés , the oldest church in Paris
  • Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois
  • Église Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais
  • Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre
  • Saint-Louis-en-l'Île
  • Église Saint-Martin-des-Champs
  • Saint-Merri
  • Église Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs
  • Eglise Saint-Roch
  • Saint-Séverin, Paris
  • Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris , 17th century church in the Saint-Germain
  • Église Saint-Vincent-de-Paul
  • Cathedral Basilica of Saint-Denis
  • Notre Dame
  • Sacre Coeur
  • Sainte-Chapelle
  • Val-de-Grâce

Museums [ edit ] Edit

Culturally, there are many types of museums. Paris has about 150 museums, from painting to science and nature to international cultures. To visit the Parisian museums can make use of a special museum pass (in French Carte Musées et Monuments et Paris Île-de-France ), which provides direct access to 60 museums and monuments in Paris and the surrounding area ( Ile-de- France ).

  • Most museums are free for children / 17 years.
  • Most museums are generally closed on Monday or Tuesday, May 1st, November 1st, 25 November and holidays.
  • Free admission days, museums and monuments are on the first Sunday of the month.

Renowned museums in Paris are:

  • the Louvre Museum : the largest museum in Paris and one of the largest museums of the world.
  • Musée d'Orsay : museum covering the history of French art from 1848 to 1914
  • Centre Georges Pompidou : Modern Art Centre
  • Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie : the biggest science museum in Europe
  • Musée de Cluny : medieval collection
  • Musee Picasso : museum with art by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso
  • Quai Branly Museum : ethnographic museum in the 7th arrondissement , (opened June 23, 2006)
  • Rodin Museum : Museum of Art of French sculptor Auguste Rodin
  • Musee de l'Orangerie : works by several impressionist painters
  • Musée Guimet : Asian Art

For a list of some of the 150 museums in Paris see the list of Parisian museums .

Bridges [ edit ] Edit

There are many bridges in Paris. Many of them connect the Seine to the Ile de la Cité , where the city originated.

Some well-known bridges in Paris are:

  • Pont Alexandre III
  • Pont de l'Alma
  • Pont de Bir-Hakeim
  • Pont Marie
  • Mirabeau
  • Pont National
  • Pont Neuf
  • Pont Saint-Louis
  • Pont de Sully

Squares [ edit ] Edit

  • Place Vendome
  • Place de la Concorde with Obelisk
  • Place du Tertre
  • Place de la Bastille
  • Place de Clichy
  • Place Charles de Gaulle (old name: Place de l'Etoile )
  • Place de la Nation
  • Place d'Italie
  • Place de la Republique
  • Place Pigalle
  • Place des Victoires
  • Place des Vosges
  • Place de la République Dominicaine
  • Place de l'Opéra
  • Place de la Madeleine

Landscaping [ Edit ] Edit

  • Parc André Citroën
  • Jardin des Plantes
  • the Tuileries
  • Luxembourg
  • Bois de Boulogne park
  • Bois de Vincennes
  • Parc Montsouris
  • Cité universitaire de Paris
  • Parc Monceau

Other sites and buildings [ edit ] Edit

  • Parc des Princes stadium of football club Paris Saint-Germain
  • Stade Charléty , the second largest sports stadium in Paris
  • Les Halles
  • the cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery , Montmartre Cemetery , Cimetiere du Montparnasse and the Catacombs
  • the Sorbonne , located in the Latin Quarter , one of the oldest universities in Europe

Area attractions [ edit ] Edit

  • Disneyland Resort Paris
  • Palace of Versailles
  • Parc Asterix
  • Fontainebleau Castle

[Politics and governance edit ] Edit

The City Hall of Paris

Paris is the 75th department of France. The area of the department coincides with the city of Paris.

Paris is divided into twenty urban districts , each district elects its own district council. In total there are 517 district councilors from among themselves, the 163 members of the board of Paris ( conseil de Paris ) selected. The members of the board of Paris choose the mayor of Paris since April 2014 Anne Hidalgo . Famous former mayors Jean Tiberi(1995-2001) and Jacques Chirac (1977-1995).

The board of Paris is both municipal and county council, the powers of both bodies are combined into one board.

Paris is formally divided into 20 cantons whose borders run similar to that of the municipal districts, this is shown by the fact that the Paris districts also act as a constituency for the departmental council (the canton function). This is done because a departmental district municipality as a whole must be part and not pieces like that is possible with cantons. Because of the name confusion (there are in France two types of districts) and the administrative assimilation of the department and the city of Paris is often incorrectly thought that the arrondissements of Paris departmental districts while it's doing its municipal districts in reality as well in Marseille and Lyon exist .

The districts are further subdivided into Quartiers , quarters. Paris says has 80 quartiers .

Traffic and transport [ edit ] Edit

Air traffic [ edit ] Edit

Terminal 1 of Charles de Gaulle , the architect Paul Andreu

Like many big cities, Paris is served by several airports.

The biggest of them, also the largest airport in France and after Heathrow the largest in Europe, is Charles de Gaulle (also the name of the municipality in whose territory it liesRoissy called), north of Paris. South of the city lies the Aéroport d'Orly , the second airport of France and Paris. Charles de Gaulle and Orly airports are connected by a train (RER line B ). Both airports have an automated subway between the terminals, the Orlyval and the CDGVAL mentioned. [29]

The Aéroport du Bourget in the past was the main airport, but now functions as a business airport of Paris (there are no scheduled services at Le Bourget) and is 6.5 km from Paris. This airport is every two years the aviation convention "Le Bourget" held known as one of the most important in the world. Aéroport de Beauvais is 70 km from the center of Paris. This airport is especially attractive to budget flights. Furthermore, in the vicinity a dozen airports to private aviation, including airports Pontoise - Cormeilles andLognes-Émerainville .

In order for the helicopter traffic is in the south of the city of Paris, outside the periferique , a heliport .

Road traffic [ edit ] Edit

Péripherique

Paris has an extensive road network, which is surrounded by the Boulevard Périphérique (ring), the ring is slightly further out formed by the A86 and pieces of other highways (A3 , A4 ). A large number of highways opens out onto this ring making it one of the busiest motorways. To the traffic that along Paris would like to better flow is working on a further ring on the outside of Paris, the A104 / N104 (also referred to as "Francilienne ').

In the center the traffic is chaotic at times, especially during rush hour. The Place Charles de Gaulle (formerly Place d'Etoile) where twelve avenues meet at the Arc de Triomphe is notorious in this respect.

In Paris drive 15,100 taxis around, transporting 500,000 passengers every day. There are 745 taxi stands, of which 205 have a call pole. Taxis may on the bus lanes away, allowing them to avoid many traffic jams.

Paris is accessible from the Netherlands and Belgium via the A1 motorway from Lille and the A2 motorway from Brussels . Furthermore, via the A4 from Reims , the A16 fromAmiens , the A13 from Rouen , the A10 from Le Mans , the A11 from Nantes , the A6 from Lyon and the A5 from Troyes .

Public transport [ edit ] Edit

See Public Transport in Île-de-France for the main article on this subject.

Gare du Nord

Operating Areas of the Paris headends

Paris has a good network of public transport. Besides an extensive bus service runs a metro with 16 lines (1 to 14, plus 3a and 7a) that connect to a dense network of RER -voorstadstreinen and Transilien -forensentreinen.

The Paris tram is in the greater Paris eight tram lines in use.

The metro lines, trams except for T4 and the Paris bus routes are operated by the Paris transport company RATP . The RER is jointly operated by the RATP and the French state rail company SNCF .

[Bicycle edit ] Edit

Paris has in recent years become a pretty bike-friendly city; In 2012 the total length of the bike paths in the city was 371 km, [30] and there is an extensive public bike rental infrastructure, the Velib ' with more than 1,200 stations in the city and nearby suburbs. The system has an average of 110,000 loans per day.

[Railways edit ] Edit

See Transilien for the editorial on this subject.

Paris also has seven major rail stations , each serving its own region of France:

  • Gare Saint-Lazare : Normandy and the west of Paris.
  • Gare Montparnasse : Brittany , the Atlantic coast, and the TGV -treinen towards the southwest of France.
  • Gare du Nord : northern France, Belgium and Netherlands with the Thalys and the United Kingdom with the Eurostar .
  • Gare de l'Est : eastern France, Luxembourg and Germany .
  • Gare de Lyon : the south and the southeast of France and Europe .
  • Gare d'Austerlitz : the Loire , the southwest of France and Spain and Portugal .
  • Gare de Bercy : specializing in the handling of car sleeper trains .

These stations are headends . This implies that change in Paris often means that one must travel by subway from one station to another. On presentation of a passing train ticket can a so-called Contre-marque with RER (not the tube!) Free of charge a transfer-free connection (or with stops at Châtelet) between the stations to be made, for example, from Gare du Nord to Gare de Lyon ( RER B / D) or Gare du Nord / Gare de l'Est (Magenta) to Gare St. Lazare (RER E). These cards are almost not issued in Paris, other French stations one gets it on production of the ticket or E-Ticket almost always along. But the journey is not interrupted in Paris (ie overnight) are.

Other major train stations in the vicinity of Paris Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy (TGV and RER station for Disneyland Paris ) and the station at Charles de Gaulle airport.

The suburban rail consists of two systems. The RER network often serves the densely populated outskirts and suburbs. The trains connect two sides of a Paris tunnel, so that people from the suburbs without changing trains can get off in central Paris. RER trains run at a high frequency, making the rail network is often considered as a subway system. Especially the RER A and B are busy, with respectively 1.2 million and 900,000 passengers per day. In addition to the RER network, there is also the Transilien network. This system leaves from the great Parisian headends and drive from there to the far suburbs and rural areas. There are eight lines, although the lines rather be a network with branches. The trains run at a lower frequency than the RER, since the demand for public transport is lower on the routes where Transilien trains.

Media [ edit ] Edit

National and international media based in Paris:

Television Edit

  • TF1
  • France 2
  • France 3
  • France 4
  • France 5
  • ARTE
  • Canal +
  • M6
  • KTO
  • Télé Bocal
  • TV5 Monde

Newspapers Edit

  • La Croix
  • Les Echos
  • L'Équipe
  • Le Figaro
  • Investir
  • Jeune Afrique L'intelligent
  • Le Monde
  • Rouge
  • La Tribune
  • Valeurs Actuelles
  • Libération


Known Parisians [ edit ] Edit

List of Parisians

City links [ edit ] Edit

  • Algiers (Algeria), since 2004
  • Amman (Jordan), since 1987
  • Amsterdam (Netherlands), since 1994
  • Athens (Greece), since 2000
  • Beirut (Lebanon), since 1992
  • Berlin (Germany), since 1987
  • Buenos Aires (Argentina), since 1999
  • Cairo (Egypt), since 1985
  • Casablanca (Morocco), since 2004
  • Chicago (United States), since 1996
  • Yerevan (Armenia), since 1998
  • Geneva (Switzerland), since 2002
  • Istanbul (Turkey), since 1988
  • Jakarta (Indonesia), since 1995
  • Kyoto (Japan), since 1958
  • Copenhagen (Denmark), since 2005
  • Lisbon (Portugal), since 1998
  • London (United Kingdom), since 2001
  • Madrid (Spain) since 2000
  • Mexico City (Mexico), since 1999
  • Montreal (Canada), since 2006
  • Moscow (Russia), since 1992
  • Nagoya (Japan)
  • Beijing (China) since 1997
  • Porto Alegre (Brazil), since 2001
  • Prague (Czech Republic) since 1997
  • Quebec (Canada) since 1996
  • Rabat (Morocco), since 2004
  • Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), since 1997
  • Rome (Italy)
  • St. Petersburg (Russia), since 1997
  • Sanaa (Yemen), since 1987
  • Sao Paulo (Brazil), since 2004
  • San Francisco (United States), since 1996
  • Santiago (Chile), since 1997
  • Seoul (South Korea), since 1991
  • Sofia (Bulgaria), since 1998
  • Sydney (Australia), since 1998
  • Tbilisi (Georgia), since 1997
  • Tokyo (Japan), since 1982
  • Tunis (Tunisia), since 2004
  • Warsaw (Poland) since 1999
  • Washington DC (United States), since 2000
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